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Spacecraft Operations - Space Weather in the Solar System


Latest WSA-ENLIL MHD solar wind forecast output (from Enlil/E) showing density and velocity in the
ecliptic plane (left) a latitudinal cut along the Sun-Earth line (middle) and density (top)
and speed (bottom) timelines for Earth and the two STEREO spacecraft.

The service "Spacecraft Operations - Space Weather in the Solar System Space" provides forecasts, nowcasts and alerts related to space weather in the heliosphere. The service is aimed at solar system mission operators who require information, at locations away from the Earth, in order to make informed decisions on the planning and execution of spacecraft operations.
The focus has been on the assessment of solar wind and solar wind transient propagation within the heliosphere. Forecasts are primarily based upon models driven by remote observations of the Sun and corona. Access to historical mission data provides additional context upon which to base operational decisions. Future developments are expected to extend the support for assessment of SEPs and extension of the solar wind modelling beyond the orbit of Mars.

This service is implemented through a combination of products, tools and alerts which can be found through the following tabs along with expert support provided by the teams constituting the SWE Network. Should you require further guidance in the use of this service, or have specific questions about any aspects of the service presented here, don't hesitate to contact the Helpdesk.

A set of models and in-orbit sensor datasets are provided with the help of tools and products such as those listed below. Additional relevant products, tools and alerts can be found by selecting the desired tabs given at the top of this page.

For technical forecasts of the heliospheric weather conditions please consider the following products and tools

  • The Alert/E product provides notifications of enhanced near-Earth heliospheric weather conditions supported by four day probabilistic forecasts and human expert forecaster commentary from the UK Met Office space weather group. This can be a good initial starting point for near-Earth heliospheric operations.
  • The ROB/SIDC Laetst daily space waether bulletin product. The forecaster on duty at the SIDC produces each day (nominal issuetime 12:30UT) a daily bulletin of Solar and Space Weather. The bulletin includes a summary of the observed activity over the past 24h, as well as an outlook on the activity for the next days.
  • The HESPERIA set of products provide short term forecasts and warnings of Solar Energetic Particles (SEP) in the near-Earth environment. Depending on the magnetic connectivity these may be useful for other solar system locations.
  • The UKMO latest Solar flare forecast uses a probabilistic model and human forecaster assessment to inidcate the probability of X-ray flares over the next 24 hours from active regions and overall for the visible solar disk.
  • The Solar Wind Forecast Speed Comparison at Earth (SWFSC/E) provides a handy overview of the solar wind forecast speeds derived from different techniques and allows you to quickly navigate to the corresponding full product page. The current in-situ measurement is provided for context.
  • The STEREO+CH (STA+CH) product uses solar wind measurements at STEREO-A together with assumptions on persistence to forecast the solar wind speed at Earth some 8 days in advance.
  • The ESWF24 service provides a reliable short-term background solar wind speed forecast over three time windows: 24h, 36h and 48h.
  • The AWARE_NEXT (AWR_NXT) product provides a forecast of the likelihood of Hight Speed Streams (HSS) and Corotating Interation Regions (CIRs) within the next 24 hours.
  • The Enlil Me (Mercury), V (Venus), E (Earth) and Ma (Mars) products give a -2 day to +5 day view of the modelled solar wind speed and density at the corresponding heliospheric targets. They make use of the well known Enlil 3d heliospheric model with forecaster determined CME inputs and summary of anticipated heliospheric weather condititions at the target.
  • The HPARC/PR provides a timeline of heliospheric weather events on a month by month basis using inputs from the various products accessible through this page

For the current heliospheric conditions the products shown below can be useful. Please note that there is a lack of near-real-time data from solar system locations away from the Earth and STEREO-A. For other locations consider using the model products given above.

  • The SW/L1 provides the solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field conditions at the L1 position 1.5 million km upstream of the Earth.
  • The SEP/E presents the energetic proton fluxes which can provide an indication of solar energetic particles enhancements in the near-Earth heliosphere region.
  • AWARE and AWARE_A provide automated in-situ detection of interplanetary shocks, CMEs and SIRs at the location of Earth (AWARE) and the STEREO-A (AWARE_A) spacecraft. The location of STEREO-A means that persistent solar wind features detected there are likely to be observed at Earth a few days (currently ~8 days) later.
  • Other relevant data on current conditions may be available from the SWE Data browser.

More advanced users may wish to understand and model particular heliospheric features themselves. A few modelling tools are provided below to assist with this.

  • The Drag Based Model (DBM) is a simple and fast model for looking at the outward propagation of CMEs. The initial CME characteristics are entered and DBM will indicate the speed and arrival time at the chosen target. The ensemble version of DBM that is provided here, DBEM, also allows the model to be run many times whilst perturbing the initial CME parameterisation. This provides a statistical assessment of likely spread in arrival times and speeds.
  • PROPTOOL is a Java application that can support analysis of radial, co-rotation and simple SEP propagation within the heliosphere and much more besides.
  • Heliopropa is a 1D MHD model that propagates observed plasma properties observed at Earth's L1 location to other targets within the solar system.

This service page is curated by the Heliospheric Weather ESC. For further information, please contact SSCC Helpdesk.


Introduction

Heliospheric Weather encompasses the effects of the solar wind, including the transient structures therein, as they propagate out from the Sun's corona through the heliosphere. This includes heliospheric effects that directly influence the Earth and also other locations within the heliosphere that may be relevant to interplanetary exploration missions.

The fundamental structure of the heliosphere is governed by the Sun's magnetic structure and solar wind outflows. The solar wind can be simplistically described as comprising a radially-expanding, quasi-static background. The origin of this background solar wind leads to its delineation into regions of high- and slow-speed solar wind, along the interfaces of which can form extensive swathes of compressed plasma/magnetic field known as Stream Interaction Regions and Co-rotating Interaction Regions (CIR) that endure for multiple solar rotations.

Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs)

Through the background solar wind propagate immense plasma/magnetic field transients, termed Coronal Mass Ejections (CME) that have been ejected from the Sun. The shocks that form in front of these structures can accelerate particles to 10's of MeV while the large scale interaction with planetary magnetospheres or ionospheres can have large scale impacts particularly on technological systems as a result of induced currents.

The video below is an Enlil (3d MHD) simulation of the radial propagation of several solar Coronal Mass Ejections (CME) during the September 2017 event. The Sun is at the centre of this view and the Earth is to the right. The circular view is as if looking down on the plane containing the Earth's orbit and the fan view is as if looking from the side. The upper panels are the solar wind density and the lower panels are solar wind speed. The spiral structures are formed from the combination of the solar rotation with the radial emission (like a garden sprinkler). CMEs are impulsive events and therefore it is easier to see their radial propagation.

CMEs typically have speeds of a few hundred to a several thousand km/s. This means that propagation to 1AU will take a day or more from its initial detection and more than twice this time to reach Mars. Fast CMEs will tend to be slowed due to drag type forces as they propagate through the slower background solar wind. If there are multiple CMEs separated in time the first may interact with the background solar wind essentially clearing the path for the following CME so that it is not slowed as much as might otherwise be expected.

Solar Energetic Particles (SEPs)

Alongside, but associated with, the bulk plasma phenomena are high-energy particle populations known as Solar Energetic Particle (SEP) events that originate either through energisation processes occurring at the site of solar flares or at interplanetary shocks. These can be particularly hazardous to space segment assets due to their ability to temporarily blind optical systems (such as star trackers) or cause anomalies in spacecraft systems due to single event effects.

Energetic particles are guided by the Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF) which forms a spiral pattern therefore source active regions (prompt) or shocks (gradual) to the west of the observer are most likely to have good connectivity. Due to their high speed energetic particles can reach 1AU from the source region in tens of minutes. Therefore for operational timescales probabilistic forecasts of solar flares and connectivity are used to assess the likelihood of a particular active region giving rise to a SEP event within the next few days.

Energetic particles from CME related shock fronts may provide more warning as the shocks are more slowly moving, tend to form with increasing distance from the Sun and may not initially be on magnetic field lines that are well connected with the observer. These gradual events may be less intense than the prompt events from solar active regions but are longer lasting and therefore may result in extended periods of blinding of attitude control system sensors such as star trackers.

In addition to the sporadic SEP events, there is also the energetic galactic cosmic rays background. This is a slowly varying energetic particle spectrum originating from outside the solar system. It is modulated by the solar cycle with the peak occurring around solar minimum. Due to the slowly varying nature of this background, long-term statistical models can be used during the early mission planning to determine the spectrum and cumulative fluxes that are anticipated. While individual SEP events can be more intense, the GCR contribution to the long-term dose is nevertheless significant and may be the cause of random single event effects outside of periods of enhanced space weather activity.

For planets with strong magnetospheres, the trapped radiation environment may pose the greatest to degradation of spacecraft systems. Planetary magnetosphere modelling and account of anticipated spacecraft trajectories must be taken into account to assess the potential exposure and impact together with space weather conditions that drive the magnetospheric activity.

Spacecraft Operations - Solar System Missions

For spacecraft operations within the solar system, the solar wind and CME forecasts and forecaster commentaries provide the short and medium term assessment of the conditions which are likely to prevail and should be considered when assessing operations activities. In particular, the current products provide information on the potential for high speed solar wind streams and for the arrival of CMEs and SIRs in the vicinity of a spacecraft.

The human forecaster augmented products and commentaries provide a good starting point for assessing the prevailing and likely conditions at near-Earth (Alert/E, ROB/SIDC and Enlil/E) and a selected set of Heliospheric locations (currently Mercury, Venus and Mars; Enlil/Me/V/Ma). For situations including Earthward directed CMEs a 24 member ensemble of low resolution Enlil runs is also undertaken in order to help assess the uncertainty in the forecast arrival times. The DBEM model allows the user to undertake their own quick assessment of CME propagation taking account of CME launch characteristics and heliospheric drag conditions. Automatic runs of DBEM are undertaken for near-Sun characterised CMEs and can be accessed from the HPARC/PR product.


DBEM being used to forecast CME arrival at Mars.

Forecasts of energetic particles at L1 are provided by the HESPERIA set of products.

Due to the lack of near-real-time in-situ plasma measurements away from the near-Earth (and STEREO-A), real-time alerting is limited to warnings resulting from model predictions and the heliospheric regions near to the Earth and STEREO-A. The best estimates of conditions at these locations is from the forecasts. Use of Nowcasts at L1 may be useful to assess the current accuracy of the forecast models and when considering co-rotating structures. Within the space weather network a few different models are used for forecasting the solar wind speed, these make use of different techniques such as physics based, empirical and persistence. The SWFSC/E provides an overview of the current model outputs which can be a useful starting point.


SWFSC/E provides a useful comparison of the current solar wind forecasts at Earth.

A number of tools are provided to assist users in assessing the propagation of space weather related phenomena within the heliosphere. The PROPTOOL incorporates simple models for radial, co-rotating and SEP propagation while the DBM is dedicated to giving an estimate of CME arrival time and speed.


PROPTOOL being used to assess flare related SEP arrival at Earth.

When trying to assess if a spacecraft anomaly could be related to space weather effects a starting point could be to check the current flare activity by examining one of the Solar Flare products from the "Solar Activity: Nowcast" menu on the Products tab. If there appears to be activity around the time the anomaly was observed then the PROPTOOL can be used to help determine if SEPs linked to the flare are well connected with the target location.

The event timeline tool, HPARC/PR under the Tools tab, may also provide useful information on any identified solar wind transients (such as CMEs) that may have been recorded at the relevant time.


HPARC/PR timeline of identified solar wind transients.

Additional contextual information is available from the archive products and may help to assess operational activities based on previous measurements. The AMDA tool allows data mining of a broad range of scientific data from current and recent space missions.

Caveats

Users should be aware that the accuracy of forecasts away from the Sun-Earth line is expected to be reduced due to the additional uncertainties (such as propagation direction) and evolution of features (compared to their identification and characterisation from a Sun-Earth line perspective).

For further information, please contact SSCC Helpdesk

The products provided for this service are split into forecast and nowcast for three physical domains consisting of 1) Solar Activity; 2) Interplanetary Medium at L1; and 3) Interplanetary Medium Outside L1. Access to archive and reconstructed products from these physical domains and related alerts are also provided. The Solar activity provides the driver for space weather effects within the solar system and on planetary environments. The L1 and Outside L1 products provide forecasts and nowcasts of the enviroment at those locations.

Solar Activity: Forecast

Solar Flares
  • SIDC Latest Solar flare forecast
  • UKMO Latest Solar flare forecast
     UKMO
  • FLARECAST Solar flare forecast
  • SIDC Latest daily space weather bulletin
  • A-EFFort Solar flare forecast
CMEs
  • SIDC Latest daily space weather bulletin
CME propagation forecast
  • Near-Earth CME arrival predictions (WSA-Enlil + Ensemble)
  • CME near-Earth arrival time predictions (DBM)
     DBM
  • Heliospheric propagation tool
  • Heliospheric solar wind forecasts for Mars
  • Heliospheric solar wind forecasts for Mercury
  • Heliospheric solar wind forecasts for Venus
  • CME arrival time predictions (DBEM)
     DBEM
  • H-ESC product assessment report
  • STEREO-A HI J-Map Annotated (Beacon Mode)
  • STEREO-A HI J-Map Annotated (Science Mode)
Coronal Holes
  • Synchronous synoptic maps of the solar corona in the UV and extreme-UV - Forecast
  • SIDC Latest daily space weather bulletin
International Sunspot number
  • Sunspot Number Forecast SC 12-month
     FORIND
  • Sunspot Number Forecast CM 12-month
     FORIND
  • Sunspot Number Forecast ISM 12-month
     FORIND
  • Sunspot Number Forecast ICM 12-month
     FORIND
  • Sunspot Number Forecast IMLM 12-month
     FORIND
  • Sunspot Number Forecast multi-year
     FORIND
Smoothed Sunspot Number (SSN, R12)
  • SIDC/SILSO Latest sunspot number forecast
10.7cm Solar Radio Flux (F10.7)
  • F10.7 Index Forecast 30-day Absolute
     FORIND
  • F10.7 Index Forecast 30-day Adjusted
     FORIND
  • F10.7 Index Forecast 27-day/BGS
     FORIND
  • F10.7 Index Forecast multi-year
     FORIND
  • F10.7 Index Forecast 27-day/SWPC
     FORIND
  • F10.7 Index Forecast 45-day
     FORIND
  • SIDC Latest 10.7cm Solar radio flux (F10.7) forecast
Solar EUV Index (S10.7)
    Solar EUV Index (E10.7)
      Solar FUV Index (M10.7)
        Solar X-ray & UV Index (Y10.7)
          Solar EUV Integrated Flux
            Solar UV Flux
              Long-term Solar Activity

                Solar Activity: Nowcast

                Solar Flares
                • UGraz/KSO Latest Solar flare detections
                • UGraz/KSO Latest Halpha light curves
                • SIDC Latest daily space weather bulletin
                CMEs
                • SIDC Latest daily space weather bulletin
                • SIDC/CACTus Automated near-real-time CME detection
                CME propagation forecast
                • Near-Earth CME arrival predictions (WSA-Enlil + Ensemble)
                • H-ESC product assessment report
                • STEREO-A HI J-Map Annotated (Beacon Mode)
                • STEREO-A HI J-Map Annotated (Science Mode)
                Coronal Holes
                • Synchronous synoptic maps of the solar corona in the UV and extreme-UV - Nowcast
                • Synchronous synoptic maps of the solar corona in the UV and extreme-UV - Forecast
                • Maps of thermal properties of the corona
                • SIDC Solarmap
                • SIDC Latest daily space weather bulletin
                • SIDC Latest automated coronal hole detection
                Solar Disc Magnetic Fields
                • Maps of electric currents in Active Region
                International Sunspot number
                • Sunspot Number Nowcast 1-day
                   FORIND
                • SIDC/SILSO International sunspot number
                Smoothed Sunspot Number (SSN, R12)
                • SIDC/SILSO International sunspot number
                10.7cm Solar Radio Flux (F10.7)
                  Solar EUV Index (S10.7)
                    Solar EUV Index (E10.7)
                      Solar FUV Index (M10.7)
                        Solar X-ray & UV Index (Y10.7)
                          Ionospheric Index (IG12)
                            EUV Images of Sun
                            • Synchronous synoptic maps of the solar corona in the UV and extreme-UV - Nowcast
                            • Synchronous synoptic maps of the solar corona in the UV and extreme-UV - Forecast
                            • Maps of thermal properties of the corona
                            • Proba2/SWAP Latest level 0 quicklook image
                            • Proba2/SWAP Latest media level image
                            • SIDC Solarmap
                            • SDO/AIA Latest Solar EUV images
                            • SDO/AIA Latest 24h movie of Solar EUV images
                            White Light Solar Imaging
                            • SIDC/USET Latest white light Solar images
                            • UGraz/KSO Latest white light Solar images
                            • INAF/OACT Latest white light Solar images
                            H-alpha Images of Sun
                            • SIDC/USET Latest Halpha Solar images
                            • UGraz/KSO Latest Halpha Solar images
                            • UGraz/KSO Latest Halpha light curves
                            • INAF/OACT Latest Halpha Solar images
                            Soft X-ray Images of the Sun
                              Solar EUV Images Outside of Sun-Earth Line
                              • Synchronous synoptic maps of the solar corona in the UV and extreme-UV - Nowcast
                              • Synchronous synoptic maps of the solar corona in the UV and extreme-UV - Forecast
                              Solar Coronagraphic Images Outside of Sun-Earth Line
                                Solar Far-side Maps (using helioseismology technique)
                                  Ly-alpha Images
                                    White-light wide-angle Coronagraph Images
                                      Solar Radiospectrographic Observations
                                      • SIDC Humain Callisto latest Solar radio spectrograms
                                      • eCallisto Solar radio spectrograms
                                      • SIDC/Humain Latest Solar radio light curves
                                      Solar X-ray Flux
                                      • GOES/SEM X-Ray Sensor datasets on SEDAT
                                         SEDAT
                                      • Proba2/LYRA Rescaled latest data
                                      • UGraz/KSO Latest Halpha light curves
                                      Solar EUV Integrated Flux
                                      • Proba2/LYRA Rescaled latest data
                                      • Proba2/LYRA Latest data
                                      Solar UV Flux
                                      Heliospheric Imaging of Sun-Earth Line
                                      • STEREO-A HI NRT Movie
                                      • STEREO-A HI Time Elongation J-Maps (Beacon Mode)
                                      • STEREO-A HI J-Map Annotated (Beacon Mode)
                                      • STEREO-A HI BS Movie
                                      • STEREO-A HI BS Difference Movie
                                      • STEREO-A HI Time Elongation J-Map (Science Mode)
                                      • STEREO-A HI J-Map Annotated (Science Mode)

                                      Interplanetary Medium at L1: Forecast

                                      High Energy >10 MeV Protons
                                      High Energy >10 MeV/nuc Ions
                                        1-10 MeV Protons
                                          1-10 MeV/nuc Ions
                                            0.03-1 MeV/nuc Ions
                                              2-50 MeV Solar Electrons
                                                30 keV-8 MeV Electrons
                                                  Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF)
                                                  • SIDC Latest daily space weather bulletin
                                                  Solar Wind Bulk Velocity
                                                  • Near-Earth solar wind forecasts (WSA-Enlil + Ensemble)
                                                  • Empirical solar wind speed forecast
                                                     ESWF
                                                  • Solar wind speed forecast (STEREO-A persistence model)
                                                     STA+CH
                                                  • AWARE_NEXT Enhanced 24 hour solar wind forecast
                                                  • Empirical solar wind speed forecast
                                                     ESWF24
                                                  • Solar Wind Forecast Speed Comparison
                                                  • SIDC Latest daily space weather bulletin
                                                  Solar Wind Bulk Density
                                                  • Near-Earth solar wind forecasts (WSA-Enlil + Ensemble)
                                                  Solar Wind Temperature
                                                    Activity at L1

                                                      Interplanetary Medium at L1: Nowcast

                                                      High Energy >10 MeV Protons
                                                      • Near-Earth NRT energetic particles (GOES)
                                                         SEP/E
                                                      • Near-Earth space weather notifications
                                                      High Energy >10 MeV/nuc Ions
                                                      • ACE/SIS dataset on SEDAT
                                                         SEDAT
                                                      1-10 MeV Protons
                                                        1-10 MeV/nuc Ions
                                                          0.03-1 MeV/nuc Ions
                                                            2-50 MeV Solar Electrons
                                                              30 keV-8 MeV Electrons
                                                                Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF)
                                                                • Near-Earth NRT solar wind (DSCOVR)
                                                                   SW/L1
                                                                • IMF Index Nowcast 1-hour
                                                                   FORIND
                                                                • IMF Index Nowcast 1-minute
                                                                   FORIND
                                                                • SIDC Latest daily space weather bulletin
                                                                Solar Wind Bulk Velocity
                                                                • AWARE_NEXT Enhanced 24 hour solar wind forecast
                                                                • Near-Earth NRT solar wind (DSCOVR)
                                                                   SW/L1
                                                                • SIDC Latest daily space weather bulletin
                                                                Solar Wind Bulk Density
                                                                • Near-Earth NRT solar wind (DSCOVR)
                                                                   SW/L1
                                                                Solar Wind Temperature
                                                                • Near-Earth NRT solar wind (DSCOVR)
                                                                   SW/L1
                                                                Activity at L1

                                                                  Interplanetary Medium Outside L1: Forecast

                                                                  CME propagation forecast
                                                                  • Near-Earth CME arrival predictions (WSA-Enlil + Ensemble)
                                                                  • CME near-Earth arrival time predictions (DBM)
                                                                     DBM
                                                                  • Heliospheric propagation tool
                                                                  • Heliospheric solar wind forecasts for Mars
                                                                  • Heliospheric solar wind forecasts for Mercury
                                                                  • Heliospheric solar wind forecasts for Venus
                                                                  • CME arrival time predictions (DBEM)
                                                                     DBEM
                                                                  • STEREO-A HI J-Map Annotated (Beacon Mode)
                                                                  • STEREO-A HI J-Map Annotated (Science Mode)
                                                                  Solar Energetic Particle Events
                                                                  • SIDC Latest daily space weather bulletin
                                                                  Interplanetary Medium Data
                                                                  • Heliospheric solar wind forecasts for Mars
                                                                  • Heliospheric solar wind forecasts for Mercury
                                                                  • Heliospheric solar wind forecasts for Venus
                                                                  • Solar wind propagation tool

                                                                  Interplanetary Medium Outside L1: Nowcast

                                                                  CME propagation forecast
                                                                  • Near-Earth CME arrival predictions (WSA-Enlil + Ensemble)
                                                                  • STEREO-A HI J-Map Annotated (Beacon Mode)
                                                                  • STEREO-A HI J-Map Annotated (Science Mode)
                                                                  Solar Energetic Particle Events
                                                                  • SIDC Latest daily space weather bulletin
                                                                  Interplanetary Medium Data
                                                                  • Automated WARnings of STEREO-A arrivals

                                                                  Solar Activity: Data Archive

                                                                  Solar Flares
                                                                  • UGraz/KSO Solar flare detection archive
                                                                  • UGraz/KSO Halpha light curves archive
                                                                  • SIDC Solar flare forecast archive
                                                                  • FLARECAST Solar flare forecast
                                                                  • SIDC Daily space weather bulletin archive
                                                                  • A-EFFort Solar flare forecast
                                                                  CMEs
                                                                  • SIDC Daily space weather bulletin archive
                                                                  • SIDC/CACTus Automated near-real-time CME detection
                                                                  CME propagation forecast
                                                                  • CME near-Earth arrival time predictions (DBM)
                                                                     DBM
                                                                  • Heliospheric propagation tool
                                                                  • CME arrival time predictions (DBEM)
                                                                     DBEM
                                                                  • H-ESC product assessment report
                                                                  • Archive - Solar wind model for Earth [WSA-Enlil]
                                                                  • Archive - Solar wind model for Mars [WSA-Enlil]
                                                                  • Archive - Solar wind model for Mercury [WSA-Enlil]
                                                                  • Archive - Solar wind model for Venus [WSA-Enlil]
                                                                  Coronal Holes
                                                                  • Synchronous synoptic maps of the solar corona in the UV and extreme-UV - Nowcast
                                                                  • Synchronous synoptic maps of the solar corona in the UV and extreme-UV - Archive
                                                                  • Synchronous synoptic maps of the solar corona in the UV and extreme-UV - Forecast
                                                                  • Maps of thermal properties of the corona
                                                                  • Maps of thermal properties of the corona
                                                                  • SIDC Solarmap
                                                                  • SIDC Daily space weather bulletin archive
                                                                  • SIDC Automated coronal hole detection archive
                                                                  Solar Disc Magnetic Fields
                                                                  • Maps of electric currents in Active Region
                                                                  International Sunspot number
                                                                  • Automated Multi Dataset Analysis (AMDA)
                                                                     AMDA
                                                                  • R - sunspot number archive
                                                                     SGIArv
                                                                  • SIDC/SILSO International sunspot number
                                                                  • SIDC/SILSO International sunspot number
                                                                  Smoothed Sunspot Number (SSN, R12)
                                                                  • SSN archive on SEDAT
                                                                     SEDAT
                                                                  • SIDC/SILSO International sunspot number
                                                                  • SIDC/SILSO Sunspot number forecast archive
                                                                  • SIDC/SILSO International sunspot number
                                                                  10.7cm Solar Radio Flux (F10.7)
                                                                  • Automated Multi Dataset Analysis (AMDA)
                                                                     AMDA
                                                                  • F10.7 archive
                                                                     SGIArv
                                                                  • SIDC 10.7cm Solar radio flux (F10.7) forecast archive
                                                                  Solar EUV Index (S10.7)
                                                                  Solar EUV Index (E10.7)
                                                                    Solar FUV Index (M10.7)
                                                                    Solar X-ray & UV Index (Y10.7)
                                                                    Ionospheric Index (IG12)
                                                                    • Ionospheric IG index archive
                                                                       SGIArv
                                                                    EUV Images of Sun
                                                                    • Synchronous synoptic maps of the solar corona in the UV and extreme-UV - Nowcast
                                                                    • Synchronous synoptic maps of the solar corona in the UV and extreme-UV - Archive
                                                                    • Synchronous synoptic maps of the solar corona in the UV and extreme-UV - Forecast
                                                                    • Maps of thermal properties of the corona
                                                                    • Maps of thermal properties of the corona
                                                                    • Proba2/SWAP Level 0 quicklook image archive
                                                                    • Proba2/SWAP Media level image archive
                                                                    • SIDC Solarmap
                                                                    • SDO/AIA Solar EUV image archive
                                                                    White Light Solar Imaging
                                                                    • SIDC/USET White light Solar images archive
                                                                    • UGraz/KSO White light Solar images archive
                                                                    • INAF/OACT White light Solar images archive
                                                                    H-alpha Images of Sun
                                                                    • SIDC/USET Halpha Solar images archive
                                                                    • UGraz/KSO Halpha Solar images archive
                                                                    • UGraz/KSO Halpha light curves archive
                                                                    • INAF/OACT Halpha Solar images archive
                                                                    Soft X-ray Images of the Sun
                                                                      Solar EUV Images Outside of Sun-Earth Line
                                                                      • Synchronous synoptic maps of the solar corona in the UV and extreme-UV - Nowcast
                                                                      • Synchronous synoptic maps of the solar corona in the UV and extreme-UV - Archive
                                                                      • Synchronous synoptic maps of the solar corona in the UV and extreme-UV - Forecast
                                                                      Solar Coronagraphic Images Outside of Sun-Earth Line
                                                                        Solar Far-side Maps (using helioseismology technique)
                                                                          Ly-alpha Images
                                                                            White-light wide-angle Coronagraph Images
                                                                              Solar Radiospectrographic Observations
                                                                              • SIDC Humain Callisto Solar radio spectrogram archive
                                                                              • eCallisto Solar radio spectrograms archive
                                                                              • SIDC/Humain Solar radio light curves archive
                                                                              Solar X-ray Flux
                                                                              • GOES/SEM X-Ray Sensor datasets on SEDAT
                                                                                 SEDAT
                                                                              • Proba2/LYRA Rescaled data archive
                                                                              • Proba2/LYRA Rescaled latest data
                                                                              • UGraz/KSO Halpha light curves archive
                                                                              Solar EUV Integrated Flux
                                                                              • Proba2/LYRA Data archive
                                                                              • Proba2/LYRA Rescaled data archive
                                                                              • Proba2/LYRA Rescaled latest data
                                                                              Solar UV Flux
                                                                              Long-term Solar Activity
                                                                                Heliospheric Imaging of Sun-Earth Line

                                                                                  Interplanetary Medium at L1: Data Archive

                                                                                  High Energy >10 MeV Protons
                                                                                  • Automated Multi Dataset Analysis (AMDA)
                                                                                     AMDA
                                                                                  • Statistical long-term plasma products - L1 p>10MeV
                                                                                  • SPENVIS Short-term solar particle models
                                                                                  • SPENVIS Long-term solar particle models
                                                                                  • SPENVIS Galactic cosmic ray models
                                                                                  • Herschel/SREM dataset on SEDAT
                                                                                     SEDAT
                                                                                  • Planck/SREM dataset on SEDAT
                                                                                     SEDAT
                                                                                  • Herschel/SREM radiation rates
                                                                                     SREM
                                                                                  • Planck/SREM radiation rates
                                                                                     SREM
                                                                                  • Very high-energy solar energetic proton fluence
                                                                                  • Very high-energy solar energetic proton peak flux
                                                                                  • Solar very high-energy particle event catalogue
                                                                                  • HESPERIA RELeASE
                                                                                  • HESPERIA UMASEP-500
                                                                                  High Energy >10 MeV/nuc Ions
                                                                                  • Automated Multi Dataset Analysis (AMDA)
                                                                                     AMDA
                                                                                  • SPENVIS Short-term solar particle models
                                                                                  • SPENVIS Long-term solar particle models
                                                                                  • SPENVIS Galactic cosmic ray models
                                                                                  • ACE/SIS dataset on SEDAT
                                                                                     SEDAT
                                                                                  • Raw ACE/EPAM ions, e, He, O, Fe channels in SEPEM
                                                                                     SEPEM
                                                                                  • Raw ACE/SIS data in SEPEM
                                                                                     SEPEM
                                                                                  1-10 MeV Protons
                                                                                  • Automated Multi Dataset Analysis (AMDA)
                                                                                     AMDA
                                                                                  • SPENVIS Galactic cosmic ray models
                                                                                  • Raw ACE/SEPICA data in SEPEM
                                                                                     SEPEM
                                                                                  1-10 MeV/nuc Ions
                                                                                  • Automated Multi Dataset Analysis (AMDA)
                                                                                     AMDA
                                                                                  • SPENVIS Galactic cosmic ray models
                                                                                  • Raw ACE/EPAM ions, e, He, O, Fe channels in SEPEM
                                                                                     SEPEM
                                                                                  • Raw ACE/SEPICA data in SEPEM
                                                                                     SEPEM
                                                                                  0.03-1 MeV/nuc Ions
                                                                                  • Automated Multi Dataset Analysis (AMDA)
                                                                                     AMDA
                                                                                  • Raw ACE/EPAM ions, e, He, O, Fe channels in SEPEM
                                                                                     SEPEM
                                                                                  • Raw ACE/SEPICA data in SEPEM
                                                                                     SEPEM
                                                                                  2-50 MeV Solar Electrons
                                                                                  • Automated Multi Dataset Analysis (AMDA)
                                                                                     AMDA
                                                                                  30 keV-8 MeV Electrons
                                                                                  • Automated Multi Dataset Analysis (AMDA)
                                                                                     AMDA
                                                                                  • Raw ACE/EPAM ions, e, He, O, Fe channels in SEPEM
                                                                                     SEPEM
                                                                                  Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF)
                                                                                  • Automated Multi Dataset Analysis (AMDA)
                                                                                     AMDA
                                                                                  • Statistical long-term plasma products - IMF Bx
                                                                                  • Statistical long-term plasma products - IMF By
                                                                                  • Statistical long-term plasma products - IMF Bz
                                                                                  • IMF - Interplanetary magnetic field archive
                                                                                     SGIArv
                                                                                  • SIDC Daily space weather bulletin archive
                                                                                  Solar Wind Bulk Velocity
                                                                                  • Archive - Solar wind model for Earth [WSA-Enlil]
                                                                                  • Archive - Solar wind model for Earth [ESWF]
                                                                                  • Archive - Solar wind model for Earth [STA+CH]
                                                                                  • Archive - Enhanced 24 hour solar wind forecast [AWR_NXT]
                                                                                  • Automated Multi Dataset Analysis (AMDA)
                                                                                     AMDA
                                                                                  • Statistical long-term plasma products - Solar Wind Speed
                                                                                  • SIDC Daily space weather bulletin archive
                                                                                  Solar Wind Bulk Density
                                                                                  • Archive - Solar wind model for Earth [WSA-Enlil]
                                                                                  • Automated Multi Dataset Analysis (AMDA)
                                                                                     AMDA
                                                                                  Solar Wind Temperature
                                                                                  • Automated Multi Dataset Analysis (AMDA)
                                                                                     AMDA
                                                                                  Activity at L1

                                                                                    Interplanetary Medium Outside L1: Data Archive

                                                                                    CME propagation forecast
                                                                                    • CME near-Earth arrival time predictions (DBM)
                                                                                       DBM
                                                                                    • Heliospheric propagation tool
                                                                                    • CME arrival time predictions (DBEM)
                                                                                       DBEM
                                                                                    • H-ESC product assessment report
                                                                                    • Archive - Solar wind model for Earth [WSA-Enlil]
                                                                                    • Archive - Solar wind model for Mars [WSA-Enlil]
                                                                                    • Archive - Solar wind model for Mercury [WSA-Enlil]
                                                                                    • Archive - Solar wind model for Venus [WSA-Enlil]
                                                                                    Solar Energetic Particle Events
                                                                                    • Automated Multi Dataset Analysis (AMDA)
                                                                                       AMDA
                                                                                    • HELIOS-A and HELIOS-B E6 and E7 datasets on SEDAT
                                                                                       SEDAT
                                                                                    • Rosetta/SREM dataset on SEDAT
                                                                                       SEDAT
                                                                                    • Rosetta/SREM radiation rates
                                                                                       SREM
                                                                                    • Raw HELIOS1 and Helios2 E6 and E7 data in SEPEM
                                                                                       SEPEM
                                                                                    • SIDC Daily space weather bulletin archive
                                                                                    Interplanetary Medium Data
                                                                                    • Solar wind propagation tool
                                                                                    • Archive - Solar wind model for Mars [WSA-Enlil]
                                                                                    • Archive - Solar wind model for Mercury [WSA-Enlil]
                                                                                    • Archive - Solar wind model for Venus [WSA-Enlil]
                                                                                    • Automated Multi Dataset Analysis (AMDA)
                                                                                       AMDA
                                                                                    • AMPTE-UKS dataset on SEDAT
                                                                                       SEDAT
                                                                                    • HELIOS-A and HELIOS-B E6 and E7 datasets on SEDAT
                                                                                       SEDAT

                                                                                    Alerts: Data Archive

                                                                                    Solar Flare Detection
                                                                                    • UGraz/KSO Solar flare alert archive
                                                                                    • SIDC Solar GOES-flare alert archive
                                                                                    • SIDC Latest Solar GOES-flare alert
                                                                                    • SIDC Human moderated alerts archive
                                                                                    Solar Flare Detection and Location
                                                                                    • UGraz/KSO Solar flare alert archive
                                                                                    CME Onset
                                                                                    • H-ESC product assessment report
                                                                                    • SIDC/CACTus Automated halo CME alert archive
                                                                                    • SIDC/CACTus Latest automated halo CME alert
                                                                                    CIR Alert
                                                                                    • Archive - Enhanced 24 hour solar wind forecast [AWR_NXT]
                                                                                    • Archive - Automated NRT Near Earth Alerts [AWARE]
                                                                                    • Archive - Automated NRT STEREO-A Alerts [AWARE_A]
                                                                                    • SIDC Human moderated alerts archive
                                                                                    Geomagnetic Storm Warning / Solar Wind Shock Arrival
                                                                                    • Archive - Automated NRT Near Earth Alerts [AWARE]
                                                                                    • Archive - Automated NRT STEREO-A Alerts [AWARE_A]

                                                                                    The tools that are currently provided support 1) The modelling of solar wind transients (such as CMEs) which can be used to help assess potential arrival at a particular heliospheric location; 2) Access to space environment tools that can help to predict the likely environment to be encounted; 3) Archive data mining;

                                                                                    The Drag-Based Model (DBM) tool provides predictions of the interplanetary coronal mass ejection (ICME) travel and its arrival at an arbitrary ecliptic-plane location or at already listed planets and satellites in ecliptic-plane orbits. Calculations are based on the assumption that the dominant force in the heliospheric dynamics of ICMEs is the magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) equivalent of the aerodynamic drag. From portal release 3.4 DBM is provided as part of the DBEM product.

                                                                                    The Drag-Based Ensemble Model (DBEM) tool provides predictions of the Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejection (ICME) travel and its arrival at an arbitrary ecliptic-plane location. Calculations are based on the standard DBM assumption that the dominant force is the MHD equivalent of aerodynamic drag. In the ensemble version the model is run multiple times by perturbing input parameters to build up a statistical view of the most likely outcome. The DBEMv3 extension, released with Portal 3.3, adds the ability to specify the CME geometry using the graduated cylindrical shell model.

                                                                                    The propagation tool supports the assessment of CME (Coronal Mass Ejections) and CIR (Corotating Interaction Regions) and SEP (Solar Energetic Particle) arrival times at planets, spacecraft and other solar system objects such as comets. It supports the tracking of heliospheric structures using white light J-maps and has access to catalogues of CME/CIR trajectories. It is also connected to science archives of in-situ data (AMDA) and imagery data to assist with posteriori analysis.

                                                                                    SEDAT (Space Environment Data System) is a tool for the engineering analysis of spacecraft charged particle environments. The facility provides access to the ODI database containing a large and comprehensive set of data about that environment as measured in-situ by a number of space missions. The user can select a set of space environment data appropriate to the engineering problem under study. SEDAT also offers a set of software tools, which can operate on the data retrieved from the database. These tools allow the user to carry out a wide range of engineering analyses. SEDAT is using a GUI written in Java.

                                                                                    SPENVIS (Space Environment Information System) is a web-based interface for assessing the space environment and its effects on spacecraft systems and crews. The system is used for mission analysis and planning. SPENVIS includes several empirical models of the space environment covering mainly cosmic rays, solar energetic particles, the natural radiation belts, magnetic fields, space plasmas and the upper atmosphere. A range of engineering models are also available to help assess the effects of the space environment on spacecraft such as surface and internal charging, energy deposition, solar cell damage and SEU rates. Usually these later models take their inputs from the empirical models present in SPENVIS. The system also includes extensive background information on the space environment, the environment models and the related standards.

                                                                                    SEPEM (Solar Energetic Particle Environment Modelling) is a WWW interface to solar energetic particle data and a range of modelling tools and functionalities intended to support space mission design. The system provides an implementation of several well known modelling methodologies, built on cleaned datasets. It also gives the user increased flexibility in his/her analysis and allows generation of mission integrated fluence statistics, peak flux statistics and other functionalities. It also integrates effects tools that calculate single event upset rates and radiation doses for a variety of scenarios.

                                                                                    The AMDA system provides an archive of planetary, solar wind, Earth magnetosphere and ionosphere mission and ground based products. In addition it supports a range of standard models such as magnetic footprints, magnetic fields, solar wind propagation to planets and probes as well as access to external databases of observations and simulations. A key functionality of the system is its embedded plotting, data mining and cataloguing functionalities which are extremely useful in relation to posteriori analysis.

                                                                                    The H-ESC product assessment report provides a monthly overview of the events identified during the interval and the accuracy with which they could be determined. Initially this activity is focused on CME arrival and solar wind speed forecasts.

                                                                                    The H-ESC product browser provides a quick way to review the H-ESC products as they were available at a specific time.

                                                                                    The H-ESC statistical products tool allows the calculation of statistical parameters and event lists based on long time series of data such as solar wind parameters.

                                                                                    SWE Data is a web application that provides access to a wide range of Space Weather related data sources covering the areas of the spacecraft, ionospheric, and ground effects. SWE Data allows the user to access all data contained in the repository providing analysis and visualisation tools from these disparate sources.

                                                                                    The following alerts are relevant to the Space Weather in the Solar System service area. They provide alerts related to transient phenomena such as flares and CMEs. Within the heliospheric context the user should be aware that there are constraints on alerting for locations away from the Sun-Earth line due to the lack of NRT assets upon which to do the assessment.

                                                                                    Solar Flare Detection

                                                                                    UGraz/KSO Latest Solar flare alert

                                                                                    SIDC Latest Solar GOES-flare alert

                                                                                    No preview available

                                                                                    SIDC Latest human moderated alert

                                                                                    No preview available

                                                                                    Solar Flare Detection and Location

                                                                                    UGraz/KSO Latest Solar flare alert

                                                                                    SIDC Latest human moderated alert

                                                                                    No preview available

                                                                                    CME Onset

                                                                                    Near-Earth CME arrival predictions (WSA-Enlil + Ensemble)

                                                                                    No preview available

                                                                                    Near-Earth space weather notifications

                                                                                    No preview available

                                                                                    H-ESC product assessment report

                                                                                    No preview available

                                                                                    SIDC/CACTus Latest automated halo CME alert

                                                                                    CIR Alert

                                                                                    AWARE_NEXT Enhanced 24 hour solar wind forecast

                                                                                    Near-Earth space weather notifications

                                                                                    No preview available

                                                                                    Automated WARnings of Earth arrivals

                                                                                     AWARE

                                                                                    Automated WARnings of STEREO-A arrivals

                                                                                    SIDC Latest human moderated alert

                                                                                    No preview available

                                                                                    Solar Particle Event Onset

                                                                                    Near-Earth space weather notifications

                                                                                    No preview available

                                                                                    SIDC Latest human moderated alert

                                                                                    No preview available

                                                                                    Geomagnetic Storm Warning / Solar Wind Shock Arrival

                                                                                    StormRisk

                                                                                    No preview available

                                                                                    Near-Earth space weather notifications

                                                                                    No preview available

                                                                                    Automated WARnings of Earth arrivals

                                                                                     AWARE

                                                                                    Automated WARnings of STEREO-A arrivals

                                                                                    This section provides links to web pages or resources that are not part of the ESA Space Weather Network or esa.int domain. These sites are not under ESA control, and therefore ESA is not responsible for any of the information or links that you may find there.

                                                                                    Reference documents

                                                                                    Currently there are no documents available under this section.

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