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Human Spaceflight - In-flight crew radiation exposure


The proton flux between 61 and 92 MeV
as measured by PROBA-V/EPT at LEO

The service “Human Spaceflight: In-flight crew radiation exposure” aims to provide information which can be used to help estimate in-flight radiation doses. Radiation environments considered include Earth’s radiation belts, galactic cosmic rays, and solar energetic particles. This service is made possible by providing measurements and estimates of current local area radiation fluxes combined with spacecraft and human phantom shielding geometry models, as well as onboard passive or active dosimeter data (e.g. thermoluminescent dosimeters [TLDs], tissue equivalent proportional counters [TEPCs]). The service is intended for personnel involved in monitoring the radiation environment during crewed space missions.

This service is implemented through a combination of products, tools and alerts which can be found through the following tabs along with expert support provided by the teams constituting the ESA Space Weather Service Network. Should you require further guidance in the use of this service, or have specific questions about any aspects of the service presented here, don’t hesitate to contact the Helpdesk.

A number of models and in-orbit sensor datasets are provided with the help of products and tools such as:

  • the RadSpace products provide information on the radiation environment and accumulated dose in human phantoms at ISS resulting from dedicated measurement campaigns;
  • measurements and derived data products from the Energetic Particle Telescope (EPT) on PROBA-V;
  • measurements and derived data products from the Standard Radiation Environment Monitors (SREM) on Proba-1, Integral, Rosetta, Herschel and Planck;
  • the Space Weather Data Browsing and Analysis (SWE Data) is a web application that provides access to space weather environment data.

This service page is curated by the ESC Space Radiation. For further information, please contact SSCC Helpdesk.

Particle radiation in the form of Solar Energetic Particles and Galactic Cosmic Rays is considered the main hazard for human spaceflight, specifically when considering a potential return trip to the Moon or interplanetary travel in general. Even at Low Earth Orbit (LEO) like the International Space Station, particle radiation poses a risk as energetic particles can penetrate deep into the magnetosphere, in particular in the polar regions. Furthermore, spacecraft passing the Van Allen radiation belts need to take into account the increased radiation levels in these regions. Monitoring the space environment in (near-) real-time to evaluate the possible health effects of space particle radiation on humans is therefore necessary. This includes space environment data (e.g. particle radiation, solar X-ray and UV observations) and dose measurements.

The RadSpace products provide information on the radiation environment at the International Space Station (ISS) which can be harmful to the health of the ISS crewmembers. The data from the DOSIS and DOSIS 3D projects map the radiation environment inside the Columbus Laboratory based on passive and active radiation detectors.

Energetic particle flux measurements (electrons, protons and helium) from the Energetic Particle Telescope (EPT) on board PROBA-V at LEO can be accessed from the Products tab. A number of other particle radiation measurements are available through the Space Environment Data System (SEDAT) as well, although this tool is focussed on engineering analysis. Note that the particle fluxes need to be properly propagated through the Earth's magnetosphere if the user is interested in knowing the flux at a different altitude other than where the measurements were taken.

Measurements and detection of solar flares and coronal mass ejections are provided by the Solar Influences Data Analysis Center (SIDC) and the Kanzelhöhe Observatory (KSO).

A large set of measurements can also be accessed through the Space Weather Data Browsing and Analysis (SWE Data) web interface.

For further information, please contact SSCC Helpdesk

Solar Activity: (Near-) Real-time Measurements

Solar Disc Magnetic Fields
  • Maps of electric currents in Active Region
10.7cm Solar Radio Flux (F10.7)
    EUV Images of Sun
    • Synchronous synoptic maps of the solar corona in the UV and extreme-UV - Nowcast
    • Synchronous synoptic maps of the solar corona in the UV and extreme-UV - Forecast
    • Maps of thermal properties of the corona
    • Proba2/SWAP Latest level 0 quicklook image
    • Proba2/SWAP Latest media level image
    • SDO/AIA Latest Solar EUV images
    • SDO/AIA Latest 24h movie of Solar EUV images
    White Light Solar Imaging
    • UGraz/KSO Latest white light Solar images
    • INAF/OACT Latest white light Solar images
    • SIDC/USET Latest white light Solar images
    Soft X-ray Images of the Sun
      Solar EUV Images Outside of Sun-Earth Line
        Solar Coronagraphic Images Outside of Sun-Earth Line
          White-light wide-angle Coronagraph Images
            Solar X-ray Flux
            • UGraz/KSO Latest Halpha light curves
            • GOES/SEM X-Ray Sensor datasets on SEDAT
               SEDAT
            Solar EUV Integrated Flux
            • Proba2/LYRA Latest data
            • Proba2/LYRA Rescaled latest data
            Solar UV Flux

            Solar Activity: Nowcasts

            Solar Flares
            • UGraz/KSO Latest Solar flare detections
            • SIDC Latest daily space weather bulletin
            CMEs
            • SIDC Latest daily space weather bulletin
            • SIDC/CACTus Automated near-real-time CME detection
            Coronal Holes
            • Synchronous synoptic maps of the solar corona in the UV and extreme-UV - Nowcast
            • SIDC Solarmap
            • SIDC Latest daily space weather bulletin
            • SIDC Latest automated coronal hole detection
            Solar Disc Magnetic Fields
              International Sunspot number
              • SIDC/SILSO International sunspot number
              • Sunspot Number Nowcast 1-day
                 FORIND
              10.7cm Solar Radio Flux (F10.7)
                Solar EUV Index (S10.7)
                  Solar EUV Index (E10.7)
                    Solar FUV Index (M10.7)
                      Solar X-ray & UV Index (Y10.7)
                        Ionospheric Index (IG12)
                          EUV Images of Sun
                          White Light Solar Imaging
                            Soft X-ray Images of the Sun
                              Solar EUV Images Outside of Sun-Earth Line
                              • Synchronous synoptic maps of the solar corona in the UV and extreme-UV - Nowcast
                              Solar Coronagraphic Images Outside of Sun-Earth Line
                                White-light wide-angle Coronagraph Images
                                  Solar X-ray Flux
                                  • Proba2/LYRA Rescaled latest data
                                  Solar EUV Integrated Flux
                                    Solar UV Flux

                                      Interplanetary Medium at L1: (Near-) Real-time Measurements

                                      High Energy >10 MeV Protons
                                        High Energy >10 MeV/nuc Ions
                                        • ACE/SIS dataset on SEDAT
                                           SEDAT
                                        1-10 MeV Protons
                                          1-10 MeV/nuc Ions
                                            0.03-1 MeV/nuc Ions
                                              2-50 MeV Solar Electrons
                                                30 keV-8 MeV Electrons
                                                  Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF)
                                                    Solar Wind Bulk Velocity
                                                      Solar Wind Bulk Density

                                                        Interplanetary Medium at L1: Nowcasts

                                                        High Energy >10 MeV Protons
                                                        • Near-Earth NRT energetic particles (GOES)
                                                           SEP/E
                                                        High Energy >10 MeV/nuc Ions
                                                          1-10 MeV Protons
                                                            1-10 MeV/nuc Ions
                                                              0.03-1 MeV/nuc Ions
                                                                2-50 MeV Solar Electrons
                                                                  30 keV-8 MeV Electrons
                                                                    Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF)
                                                                    • SIDC Latest daily space weather bulletin
                                                                    • Near-Earth NRT solar wind (DSCOVR)
                                                                       SW/L1
                                                                    • IMF Index Nowcast 1-hour
                                                                       FORIND
                                                                    • IMF Index Nowcast 1-minute
                                                                       FORIND
                                                                    Solar Wind Bulk Velocity
                                                                    • SIDC Latest daily space weather bulletin
                                                                    • Near-Earth NRT solar wind (DSCOVR)
                                                                       SW/L1
                                                                    Solar Wind Bulk Density
                                                                    • Near-Earth NRT solar wind (DSCOVR)
                                                                       SW/L1

                                                                    Interplanetary Medium Outside L1: (Near-) Real-time Measurements

                                                                    Solar Energetic Particle Events
                                                                      Interplanetary Medium Data

                                                                        Interplanetary Medium Outside L1: Nowcasts

                                                                        Solar Energetic Particle Events
                                                                        • SIDC Latest daily space weather bulletin
                                                                        Interplanetary Medium Data
                                                                        • Automated WARnings of STEREO-A arrivals

                                                                        Magnetospheric Environment: (Near-) Real-time Measurements

                                                                        High Energy >10 MeV Protons
                                                                        • Near-Earth NRT energetic particles (GOES)
                                                                           SEP/E
                                                                        • PROBA-V/EPT Proton flux spectra time series
                                                                           EPT
                                                                        • PROBA-V/EPT High-latitude/polar proton flux survey
                                                                           EPT
                                                                        • GOES/SEM-EPS datasets on SEDAT
                                                                           SEDAT
                                                                        • PROBA-1/SREM dataset on SEDAT
                                                                           SEDAT
                                                                        • Integral/SREM dataset on SEDAT
                                                                           SEDAT
                                                                        • PROBA-1/SREM radiation rates
                                                                           SREM
                                                                        • Integral/SREM radiation rates
                                                                           SREM
                                                                        High Energy >10 MeV/nuc Ions
                                                                        • PROBA-V/EPT Helium flux spectra time series
                                                                           EPT
                                                                        • PROBA-V/EPT High-latitude/polar helium flux survey
                                                                           EPT
                                                                        • GOES/SEM-EPS datasets on SEDAT
                                                                           SEDAT
                                                                        • POES/SEM-2 dataset on SEDAT
                                                                           SEDAT
                                                                        1-10 MeV Protons
                                                                        • GOES/SEM-EPS datasets on SEDAT
                                                                           SEDAT
                                                                        1-10 MeV/nuc Ions
                                                                        • GOES/SEM-EPS datasets on SEDAT
                                                                           SEDAT
                                                                        0.03-1 MeV/nuc Ions
                                                                        • POES/SEM-2 dataset on SEDAT
                                                                           SEDAT
                                                                        30 keV-8 MeV Electrons
                                                                        • PROBA-V/EPT Electron flux spectra time series
                                                                           EPT
                                                                        • PROBA-V/EPT High-latitude/polar electron flux survey
                                                                           EPT
                                                                        • GOES/SEM-EPS datasets on SEDAT
                                                                           SEDAT
                                                                        • PROBA-1/SREM dataset on SEDAT
                                                                           SEDAT
                                                                        • Integral/SREM dataset on SEDAT
                                                                           SEDAT
                                                                        • POES/SEM-2 dataset on SEDAT
                                                                           SEDAT
                                                                        • PROBA-1/SREM radiation rates
                                                                           SREM
                                                                        • Integral/SREM radiation rates
                                                                           SREM
                                                                        Thermal and Supra-thermal Electron and Ion Energy Spectra
                                                                          Thermal Ions Density and Temperature
                                                                            Plasma Drift Velocity

                                                                              Magnetospheric Environment: Nowcasts

                                                                              Geomagnetic Storm Condition
                                                                              • 3-hourly K index: Lerwick, Eskdalemuir, Hartland
                                                                                 BGS
                                                                              • 3-hourly aa index
                                                                                 BGS
                                                                              • 3-hourly Kp index
                                                                                 BGS
                                                                              • 3-hourly ap index
                                                                                 BGS
                                                                              • Daily Aa index
                                                                                 BGS
                                                                              • Daily Ap index
                                                                                 BGS
                                                                              • 3-hourly K(GBI) index
                                                                                 BGS
                                                                              • Real-time one-minute Dst (ASC)
                                                                                 BGS
                                                                              • StormRisk
                                                                              Geomagnetic Indices Kp and K
                                                                              • SIDC Latest daily space weather bulletin
                                                                              • Kp Index Nowcast 3-hour/GFZ
                                                                                 FORIND
                                                                              • Kp Index Nowcast 3-hour/BGS
                                                                                 FORIND
                                                                              • 3-hourly K index: Lerwick, Eskdalemuir, Hartland
                                                                                 BGS
                                                                              • 3-hourly Kp index
                                                                                 BGS
                                                                              • 3-hourly K(GBI) index
                                                                                 BGS
                                                                              • K-index from magnetometer stations in north Europe
                                                                                 DTU K
                                                                              • Nowcast Kp index
                                                                                 GFZ
                                                                              • Kp and Ap index on tabular form
                                                                                 GFZ
                                                                              • Nowcast Hp60 index
                                                                              • Hp60 and ap60 index in tabular form
                                                                              • Nowcast Hp30 index
                                                                              • Hp30 and ap30 index in tabular form
                                                                              • SIDC Latest 3-day K Dourbes forecast
                                                                              Geomagnetic Index Ap and A
                                                                              • SIDC Latest daily space weather bulletin
                                                                              • ap index Nowcast 3-hour/BGS
                                                                                 FORIND
                                                                              • ap index Nowcast 3-hour/GFZ
                                                                                 FORIND
                                                                              • ap index Nowcast 1-day/BGS
                                                                                 FORIND
                                                                              • ap index Nowcast 1-day/SWPC
                                                                                 FORIND
                                                                              • ap index Nowcast 1-day/GFZ
                                                                                 FORIND
                                                                              • 3-hourly aa index
                                                                                 BGS
                                                                              • 3-hourly ap index
                                                                                 BGS
                                                                              • Daily Aa index
                                                                                 BGS
                                                                              • Daily Ap index
                                                                                 BGS
                                                                              • Kp and Ap index on tabular form
                                                                                 GFZ
                                                                              • Hp60 and ap60 index in tabular form
                                                                              • Hp30 and ap30 index in tabular form
                                                                              Geomagnetic Index Dst
                                                                              • Dst Index Nowcast 1-hour
                                                                                 FORIND
                                                                              • Real-time one-minute Dst (ASC)
                                                                                 BGS
                                                                              High Energy >10 MeV Protons
                                                                              • SIDC Latest daily space weather bulletin
                                                                              High Energy >10 MeV/nuc Ions
                                                                                1-10 MeV Protons
                                                                                  1-10 MeV/nuc Ions
                                                                                    0.03-1 MeV/nuc Ions
                                                                                      30 keV-8 MeV Electrons
                                                                                      • GOES-16 Radiation Environment
                                                                                         SaRIF
                                                                                      • GIOVE-A Radiation Environment
                                                                                         SaRIF
                                                                                      • Slot Region Radiation Environment
                                                                                         SaRIF
                                                                                      • MOSWOC Forecast
                                                                                         SaRIF
                                                                                      Thermal and Supra-thermal Electron and Ion Energy Spectra
                                                                                        Thermal Ions Density and Temperature

                                                                                          Thermospheric and Atmospheric Conditions: (Near-) Real-time Measurements

                                                                                          Local External Magnetic Field on Ground
                                                                                          • Horizontal magnetic rate of change (UK)
                                                                                             BGS
                                                                                          • dMag/dt
                                                                                          • Magnetogrammes from North(West) Europe and Greenland

                                                                                          Thermospheric and Atmospheric Conditions: Nowcasts

                                                                                          Local External Magnetic Field on Ground
                                                                                          • dMag/dt
                                                                                          • Magnetogrammes from North(West) Europe and Greenland
                                                                                          • LDiñ
                                                                                             UAH
                                                                                          • LCiñ
                                                                                             UAH

                                                                                          Spacecraft Effects and Anomalies: Data Archives

                                                                                          Anomalies on Spacecraft Equipment

                                                                                            Spacecraft Effects and Anomalies: (Near-) Real-time Measurements

                                                                                            Spacecraft Radiation Monitors
                                                                                            • Radiation environment inside ISS
                                                                                            • PROBA-1/SREM dataset on SEDAT
                                                                                               SEDAT
                                                                                            • Integral/SREM dataset on SEDAT
                                                                                               SEDAT
                                                                                            • PROBA-1/SREM radiation rates
                                                                                               SREM
                                                                                            • Integral/SREM radiation rates
                                                                                               SREM
                                                                                            Spacecraft Housekeeping Telemetry

                                                                                              Spacecraft Effects and Anomalies: Model and Medium-term Forecast

                                                                                              Anomalies on Spacecraft Equipment
                                                                                              • SPENVIS Short-term SEU rates and LET spectra
                                                                                              • SPENVIS Long-term SEUs and LET spectra
                                                                                              • SPENVIS Particle/wall interaction models

                                                                                              Spacecraft Effects and Anomalies: Nowcasts

                                                                                              Orbital Data of Spacecraft Carrying Space Weather Instruments

                                                                                                The AMDA system provides an archive of planetary, solar wind, Earth magnetosphere and ionosphere mission and ground based products. In addition it supports a range of standard models such as magnetic footprints, magnetic fields, solar wind propagation to planets and probes as well as access to external databases of observations and simulations. A key functionality of the system is its embedded plotting, data mining and cataloguing functionalities which are extremely useful in relation to posteriori analysis.

                                                                                                All Quiet Alert

                                                                                                SIDC Latest all quiet alert

                                                                                                End-of-quiet Alert

                                                                                                SIDC Latest all quiet alert

                                                                                                Solar Flare Detection

                                                                                                UGraz/KSO Latest Solar flare alert

                                                                                                SIDC Latest Solar GOES-flare alert

                                                                                                SIDC Latest human moderated alert

                                                                                                Solar Flare Detection and Location

                                                                                                UGraz/KSO Latest Solar flare alert

                                                                                                SIDC Latest human moderated alert

                                                                                                CME Onset

                                                                                                SIDC/CACTus Latest automated halo CME alert

                                                                                                H-ESC product assessment report

                                                                                                No preview available

                                                                                                Near-Earth space weather notifications

                                                                                                No preview available

                                                                                                Near-Earth CME arrival predictions (WSA-Enlil + Ensemble)

                                                                                                No preview available

                                                                                                Halo CME Onset

                                                                                                SIDC/CACTus Latest automated halo CME alert

                                                                                                SIDC Latest human moderated alert

                                                                                                Coronal Hole Notification

                                                                                                 

                                                                                                 

                                                                                                CIR Alert

                                                                                                SIDC Latest human moderated alert

                                                                                                AWARE_NEXT Enhanced 24 hour solar wind forecast

                                                                                                Near-Earth space weather notifications

                                                                                                No preview available

                                                                                                Automated WARnings of STEREO-A arrivals

                                                                                                Automated WARnings of Earth arrivals

                                                                                                 AWARE

                                                                                                Solar Particle Event Onset

                                                                                                Near-Earth space weather notifications

                                                                                                No preview available

                                                                                                SIDC Latest human moderated alert

                                                                                                Geomagnetic Storm Warning / Solar Wind Shock Arrival

                                                                                                Near-Earth space weather notifications

                                                                                                No preview available

                                                                                                Automated WARnings of STEREO-A arrivals

                                                                                                Automated WARnings of Earth arrivals

                                                                                                 AWARE

                                                                                                StormRisk

                                                                                                No preview available

                                                                                                Geomagnetic Storm Onset

                                                                                                SIDC Latest human moderated alert

                                                                                                SolarHeed

                                                                                                 UAH

                                                                                                No preview available

                                                                                                UAH-SWE Subscription

                                                                                                 UAH

                                                                                                No preview available

                                                                                                Sentinel G

                                                                                                 UAH

                                                                                                No preview available

                                                                                                Sentinel C

                                                                                                 UAH

                                                                                                No preview available

                                                                                                UAH-SWE Report

                                                                                                 UAH

                                                                                                No preview available

                                                                                                Geomagnetic activity alert

                                                                                                 BGS

                                                                                                No preview available

                                                                                                Ionospheric Disturbance Detection

                                                                                                EIS Alerts for ionospheric disturbances in the European sector

                                                                                                 EIS

                                                                                                SISTED warning

                                                                                                 IonSAT

                                                                                                No preview available

                                                                                                SOLERA-drift warning

                                                                                                 IonSAT

                                                                                                No preview available

                                                                                                Ground Level Enhancement Detection

                                                                                                GLE Alert++

                                                                                                 ANeMoS

                                                                                                This section provides links to web pages or resources that are not part of the ESA Space Weather Service Network or esa.int domain.  These sites are not under ESA control, and therefore ESA is not responsible for any of the information or links that you may find there. 

                                                                                                Reference documents

                                                                                                • Directive 2013/59/Euratom Basic safety standards for protection against the dangers arising from exposure to ionising radiation.
                                                                                                • ECSS-E-ST-10-04C Space environment (15 June 2020)
                                                                                                • ECSS-E-ST-10-12C Method for the calculation of radiation received and its effects, and a policy for design margins (issued on 15 November 2008)
                                                                                                • ECSS-E-HB-10-12A Calculation of radiation and its effects and margin policy handbook (issued on 17 December 2010)
                                                                                                  Choose Skin