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ESA SSA SWE Service Page Mockup: SCO/orb

Spacecraft Operation - In-orbit environment and effects monitoring



Near-real-time (NRT) observations during the past 5 days giving an overview of space environment conditions
(from top to bottom): PROBA-2/LYRA intensities in the Al and Zr channels providing solar flare observation
DSCOVR solar wind pressure and speed, Bt and Bz, GOES >10 MeV proton flux (primary and secondary
detectors), GOES >2 MeV electron flux (primary and secondary detectors), and Integral/SREM proton
count rate (43-86 MeV).


The service “Spacecraft Operation - In-orbit environment and effects monitoring” aims to provide a near-real-time estimate of the space environment and its effects actually experienced in regard to the operation of the spacecraft. To obtain a near-real-time quantitative assessment of the space environment, the SSA SWE network provides monitoring of phenomena that can lead to potentially hazardous and sudden effects on spacecraft (e.g. magnetic storms, substorms, high-speed streams, solar energetic particle events, Earth-directed CMEs, meteor streams, and debris clouds). This continuous real-time monitoring of the space weather environment provides the relevant information to take informed decisions related to spacecraft operations and helps with the correlation of results in future analysis. Real-time data allows the system to provide forecast and near-real-time assessment of the effects of ionospheric disturbances on spacecraft operations, nowcast and forecast of meteoroid and space debris fluxes (including streams and debris clouds), as well as the atmospheric data (properties) required for drag calculation on Earth, Mars, Venus and other relevant planets.

The service is intended for personnel such as spacecraft operators who monitor the space weather conditions and provide real-time assessment of space weather risk (e.g. SEE, ESD, errors in magnetorquing and sudden drag-induced orbit changes in LEO) to spacecraft.

This service is implemented through a combination of products and tools which can be found through the following tabs along with expert support provided by the teams constituting the SWE Network. Should you require further guidance in the use of this service, or have specific questions about any aspects of the service presented here, don’t hesitate to contact the Helpdesk.


A set of models and in-orbit sensor datasets are provided with the help of tools and products such as

  • the Space Environment Data System (SEDAT) allows engineering analyses to be carried out on datasets related to the spacecraft charged particle environments;
  • the Energetic Particle Telescope (EPT) on PROBA-V provides measurements of energetic electrons, protons and helium fluxes at LEO orbit;
  • the Standard Radiation Environment Monitors (SREM) on PROBA-1, Integral and Rosetta provide measurements of the particle radiation environment;
  • The Satellite Risk Indicators Forecasts (SaRIF) provides colour-coded risk indicators showing the risk from internal charging and total ionising dose for the outer radiation belt and slot region;
  • the Space Weather Data Browsing and Analysis (SWE Data) provides access to space weather environment data.


This service page is curated by the ESC Space Radiation. For further information, please contact SSCC Helpdesk


ESA mission operations centre, ESOC Darmstadt, Germany (© ESA)

Throughout its existence, the Sun goes through various nonstationary active and nonequilibrium (often eruptive) processes; this can be broadly regarded as solar activity. Solar activity covers solar surface magnetic activity, eruptive phenomena, interplanetary transients, geomagnetic disturbances, and phenomena that may affect the functioning of spacecraft. For this reason spacecraft and solar activity are monitored 24/7 by spacecraft operators.

From the Products tab, a range of products can be accessed that are useful for spacecraft operators. Measurements and detection of solar flares and coronal mass ejections are available from the Solar Influences Data Analysis Center (SIDC) and the Kanzelhöhe Observatory (KSO). The SIDC also provides a daily space weather bulletin. Energetic particle flux measurements (electrons, protons and helium) from the Energetic Particle Telescope (EPT) on board PROBA-V can be accessed. Daily radiation situation reports comparing the measurements from several Standard Radiation Environment Monitors (SREM) in various key regions with reference particle rates are provided. The SaRIF product provides a nowcast for spacecraft effects and the radiation environment in the outer radiation belt and slot region. A number of other particle radiation measurements are available through the Space Environment Data System (SEDAT) as well. Nowcast for Kp and Ap indices are provided by the Tromsø Geophysical Observatory (TGO) and the German Research Centre for Geosciences (GFZ). Information on the current and nowcasted ionospheric, thermospheric and atmospheric conditions is provided through several monitoring centres and facilities, like the Ionosphere Monitoring and Prediction Center (IMPC), the Real-Time Ionosphere Monitor (RTIM), the European Ionosonde Service (EIS), the Ionosphere Monitoring Facility (IONMON), Service Supporting Resource Exploitation System Operators (RESOSS) and TGO. A large set of measurements can also be accessed through the Space Weather Data Browsing and Analysis (SWE Data) web interface.

For further information, please contact the SSCC Helpdesk

Solar Activity: (Near-) Real-time Measurements

Solar Disc Magnetic Fields
    10.7cm Solar Radio Flux (F10.7)
      Solar X-ray Flux
      • UGraz/KSO Latest Halpha light curves
      • GOES/SEM X-Ray Sensor datasets on SEDAT
         SEDAT
      Solar EUV Integrated Flux
      • Proba2/LYRA Latest data
      • Proba2/LYRA Rescaled latest data
      Solar UV Flux

      Solar Activity: Nowcasts

      Solar Flares
      • UGraz/KSO Latest Solar flare detections
      • SIDC Latest daily space weather bulletin
      CMEs
      • SIDC Latest daily space weather bulletin
      • SIDC/CACTus Automated near-real-time CME detection
      Coronal Holes
      • SIDC Latest daily space weather bulletin
      • SIDC Latest automated coronal hole detection
      Solar Disc Magnetic Fields
        International Sunspot number
        • SIDC/SILSO International sunspot number
        • Sunspot Number Nowcast 1-day
           FORIND
        10.7cm Solar Radio Flux (F10.7)
          Solar EUV Index (S10.7)
            Solar EUV Index (E10.7)
              Solar FUV Index (M10.7)
                Solar X-ray & UV Index (Y10.7)
                  Ionospheric Index (IG12)
                    Solar X-ray Flux
                    • Proba2/LYRA Rescaled latest data
                    • Proba2/LYRA Rescaled data archive
                    Solar EUV Integrated Flux
                      Solar UV Flux

                        Interplanetary Medium at L1: (Near-) Real-time Measurements

                        High Energy >10 MeV Protons
                          High Energy >10 MeV/nuc Ions
                          • ACE/SIS dataset on SEDAT
                             SEDAT
                          1-10 MeV Protons
                            1-10 MeV/nuc Ions
                              0.03-1 MeV/nuc Ions
                                2-50 MeV Solar Electrons
                                  30 keV-8 MeV Electrons
                                    Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF)
                                      Solar Wind Bulk Velocity
                                        Solar Wind Bulk Density

                                          Interplanetary Medium at L1: Nowcasts

                                          High Energy >10 MeV Protons
                                          • Near-Earth NRT energetic particles (GOES)
                                             SEP/E
                                          High Energy >10 MeV/nuc Ions
                                            1-10 MeV Protons
                                              1-10 MeV/nuc Ions
                                                0.03-1 MeV/nuc Ions
                                                  2-50 MeV Solar Electrons
                                                    30 keV-8 MeV Electrons
                                                      Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF)
                                                      • SIDC Latest daily space weather bulletin
                                                      • Near-Earth NRT solar wind (DSCOVR)
                                                         SW/L1
                                                      • IMF Index Nowcast 1-hour
                                                         FORIND
                                                      • IMF Index Nowcast 1-minute
                                                         FORIND
                                                      Solar Wind Bulk Velocity
                                                      • SIDC Latest daily space weather bulletin
                                                      • Near-Earth NRT solar wind (DSCOVR)
                                                         SW/L1
                                                      Solar Wind Bulk Density
                                                      • Near-Earth NRT solar wind (DSCOVR)
                                                         SW/L1

                                                      Interplanetary Medium Outside L1: (Near-) Real-time Measurements

                                                      Solar Energetic Particle Events
                                                        Interplanetary Medium Data

                                                          Interplanetary Medium Outside L1: Nowcasts

                                                          Solar Energetic Particle Events
                                                          • SIDC Latest daily space weather bulletin
                                                          Interplanetary Medium Data
                                                          • Automated WARnings of STEREO-A arrivals

                                                          Magnetospheric Environment: (Near-) Real-time Measurements

                                                          High Energy >10 MeV Protons
                                                          • Near-Earth NRT energetic particles (GOES)
                                                             SEP/E
                                                          • PROBA-V/EPT Proton flux spectra time series
                                                             EPT
                                                          • PROBA-V/EPT Polar Proton Flux Survey
                                                          • GOES/SEM-EPS datasets on SEDAT
                                                             SEDAT
                                                          • PROBA-1/SREM dataset on SEDAT
                                                             SEDAT
                                                          • Integral/SREM dataset on SEDAT
                                                             SEDAT
                                                          • PROBA-1/SREM radiation rates
                                                             SREM
                                                          • Integral/SREM radiation rates
                                                             SREM
                                                          High Energy >10 MeV/nuc Ions
                                                          • PROBA-V/EPT Helium flux spectra time series
                                                             EPT
                                                          • PROBA-V/EPT Polar Helium Flux Survey
                                                          • GOES/SEM-EPS datasets on SEDAT
                                                             SEDAT
                                                          • POES/SEM-2 dataset on SEDAT
                                                             SEDAT
                                                          1-10 MeV Protons
                                                          • GOES/SEM-EPS datasets on SEDAT
                                                             SEDAT
                                                          1-10 MeV/nuc Ions
                                                          • GOES/SEM-EPS datasets on SEDAT
                                                             SEDAT
                                                          0.03-1 MeV/nuc Ions
                                                          • POES/SEM-2 dataset on SEDAT
                                                             SEDAT
                                                          30 keV-8 MeV Electrons
                                                          • PROBA-V/EPT Electron flux spectra time series
                                                             EPT
                                                          • PROBA-V/EPT High-Latitude Electron Flux Survey
                                                          • GOES/SEM-EPS datasets on SEDAT
                                                             SEDAT
                                                          • PROBA-1/SREM dataset on SEDAT
                                                             SEDAT
                                                          • Integral/SREM dataset on SEDAT
                                                             SEDAT
                                                          • POES/SEM-2 dataset on SEDAT
                                                             SEDAT
                                                          • PROBA-1/SREM radiation rates
                                                             SREM
                                                          • Integral/SREM radiation rates
                                                             SREM
                                                          Thermal and Supra-thermal Electron and Ion Energy Spectra
                                                            Thermal Ions Density and Temperature
                                                              Plasma Drift Velocity

                                                                Magnetospheric Environment: Nowcasts

                                                                Geomagnetic Storm Condition
                                                                • 3-hourly aa-index
                                                                   BGS
                                                                • 3-hourly Kp-index
                                                                   BGS
                                                                • 3-hourly ap-index
                                                                   BGS
                                                                • Daily Aa index
                                                                   BGS
                                                                • Daily Ap index
                                                                   BGS
                                                                • 3-hourly K(GBI) index
                                                                   BGS
                                                                Geomagnetic Indices Kp and K
                                                                • SIDC Latest daily space weather bulletin
                                                                • Kp Index Nowcast 3-hour/GFZ
                                                                   FORIND
                                                                • Kp Index Nowcast 3-hour/BGS
                                                                   FORIND
                                                                • K-index from magnetometer stations in north Europe
                                                                   DTU K
                                                                • Nowcast Kp index
                                                                   GFZ
                                                                • Kp and Ap index on tabular form
                                                                   GFZ
                                                                • 3-hourly Kp-index
                                                                   BGS
                                                                • 3-hourly K(GBI) index
                                                                   BGS
                                                                Geomagnetic Index Ap and A
                                                                • SIDC Latest daily space weather bulletin
                                                                • ap index Nowcast 3-hour/BGS
                                                                   FORIND
                                                                • ap index Nowcast 3-hour/GFZ
                                                                   FORIND
                                                                • ap index Nowcast 1-day/BGS
                                                                   FORIND
                                                                • ap index Nowcast 1-day/SWPC
                                                                   FORIND
                                                                • ap index Nowcast 1-day/GFZ
                                                                   FORIND
                                                                • Kp and Ap index on tabular form
                                                                   GFZ
                                                                • 3-hourly aa-index
                                                                   BGS
                                                                • 3-hourly ap-index
                                                                   BGS
                                                                • Daily Aa index
                                                                   BGS
                                                                • Daily Ap index
                                                                   BGS
                                                                Geomagnetic Index Dst
                                                                • Dst Index Nowcast 1-hour
                                                                   FORIND
                                                                • UAH-SWE Subscription
                                                                   UAH
                                                                High Energy >10 MeV Protons
                                                                • SIDC Latest daily space weather bulletin
                                                                • GOES-15 Radiation Environment
                                                                   SaRIF
                                                                • GOES-14 Radiation Environment
                                                                   SaRIF
                                                                • GIOVE-A Radiation Environment
                                                                   SaRIF
                                                                • Slot Region Radiation Environment
                                                                   SaRIF
                                                                High Energy >10 MeV/nuc Ions
                                                                  1-10 MeV Protons
                                                                    1-10 MeV/nuc Ions
                                                                      0.03-1 MeV/nuc Ions
                                                                        30 keV-8 MeV Electrons
                                                                        • GOES-15 Radiation Environment
                                                                           SaRIF
                                                                        • GOES-14 Radiation Environment
                                                                           SaRIF
                                                                        • GIOVE-A Radiation Environment
                                                                           SaRIF
                                                                        • Slot Region Radiation Environment
                                                                           SaRIF
                                                                        • MOSWOC Forecast
                                                                           SaRIF
                                                                        Thermal and Supra-thermal Electron and Ion Energy Spectra
                                                                          Thermal Ions Density and Temperature

                                                                            Thermospheric and Atmospheric Conditions: (Near-) Real-time Measurements

                                                                            Vertical Total Electron Content Map
                                                                            • VTEC maps (Northern Europe)
                                                                               RTIM
                                                                            • Swarm Total Electron Content (TEC)
                                                                               SUA I
                                                                            URSI Ionospheric Parameters
                                                                            • Nowcast European maps of foF2
                                                                               EIS
                                                                            • hmF2 maps for the European region
                                                                               EIS
                                                                            Neutral Density in Thermosphere
                                                                              Neutral Wind Velocity in Thermosphere
                                                                                Scintillation Indices and Parameters
                                                                                • Local scintillation indices S4 & σφ Kiruna
                                                                                   IMPC
                                                                                • Local scintillation indices S4 & σφ Neustrelitz
                                                                                   IMPC
                                                                                • Local scintillation indices S4 & σφ Svalbard
                                                                                   IMPC
                                                                                • Local scintillation indices S4 & σφ Tenerife
                                                                                   IMPC
                                                                                • Local scintillation indices S4 & σφ Toulouse
                                                                                   IMPC
                                                                                • S4 maps (Northern Europe)
                                                                                   RTIM
                                                                                • σφ maps (Northern Europe)
                                                                                   RTIM
                                                                                • S4 and Err(S4) nowcast modelled maps
                                                                                   ISM
                                                                                • SigmaPhi and Err(SigmaPhi) nowcast modelled maps
                                                                                   ISM
                                                                                Atomic Oxygen Density
                                                                                  Local External Magnetic Field on Ground
                                                                                  • Magnetogrammes from North(West) Europe and Greenland
                                                                                  • Real-time and historic geomagnetic activity plots and data files for geomagnetic surveying (total field)
                                                                                  • Real-time and historic geomagnetic activity plots and data files for directional drilling (total field, declination and inclination)
                                                                                  • Horizontal magnetic rate of change
                                                                                     BGS
                                                                                  Neutral Density and Wind

                                                                                    Thermospheric and Atmospheric Conditions: Nowcasts

                                                                                    Vertical Total Electron Content Map
                                                                                    • TEC map (Europe), current
                                                                                       IMPC
                                                                                    • TEC map (Global), current
                                                                                       IMPC
                                                                                    • VTEC maps (Northern Europe)
                                                                                       RTIM
                                                                                    • IONMON TEC maps
                                                                                       IONMON
                                                                                    • Near-real-time TEC maps for the European region
                                                                                       EIS
                                                                                    • TEC and Err(TEC) nowcast modelled maps
                                                                                       ISM
                                                                                    • TEC and Err(TEC) nowcast modelled values at a given location
                                                                                       ISM
                                                                                    URSI Ionospheric Parameters
                                                                                    • Nowcast European maps of foF2
                                                                                       EIS
                                                                                    • hmF2 maps for the European region
                                                                                       EIS
                                                                                    Neutral Density in Thermosphere
                                                                                      Neutral Wind Velocity in Thermosphere
                                                                                        Scintillation Indices and Parameters
                                                                                        • Local scintillation indices S4 & σφ Kiruna
                                                                                           IMPC
                                                                                        • Local scintillation indices S4 & σφ Neustrelitz
                                                                                           IMPC
                                                                                        • Local scintillation indices S4 & σφ Svalbard
                                                                                           IMPC
                                                                                        • Local scintillation indices S4 & σφ Tenerife
                                                                                           IMPC
                                                                                        • Local scintillation indices S4 & σφ Toulouse
                                                                                           IMPC
                                                                                        • S4 maps (Northern Europe)
                                                                                           RTIM
                                                                                        • σφ maps (Northern Europe)
                                                                                           RTIM
                                                                                        • S4 and Err(S4) nowcast modelled maps
                                                                                           ISM
                                                                                        • SigmaPhi and Err(SigmaPhi) nowcast modelled maps
                                                                                           ISM
                                                                                        • S4 and Err(S4) nowcast modelled values at a given location
                                                                                           ISM
                                                                                        • SigmaPhi and Err(SigmaPhi) nowcast modelled values at a given location
                                                                                           ISM
                                                                                        Atomic Oxygen Density
                                                                                          Local External Magnetic Field on Ground
                                                                                          • Magnetogrammes from North(West) Europe and Greenland
                                                                                          • Real-time and historic geomagnetic activity plots and data files for geomagnetic surveying (total field)
                                                                                          • Real-time and historic geomagnetic activity plots and data files for directional drilling (total field, declination and inclination)
                                                                                          • LDiñ
                                                                                             UAH
                                                                                          • LCiñ
                                                                                             UAH
                                                                                          Neutral Density and Wind

                                                                                            Microparticle Environment: (Near-) Real-time Measurements

                                                                                            Micro Particle Flux

                                                                                              Microparticle Environment: Nowcasts

                                                                                              Micro Particle Flux
                                                                                                Known Periods/events of Increased Microparticle Flux

                                                                                                  Spacecraft Effects and Anomalies: Data Archives

                                                                                                  Anomalies on Spacecraft Equipment

                                                                                                    Spacecraft Effects and Anomalies: (Near-) Real-time Measurements

                                                                                                    Spacecraft Radiation Monitors
                                                                                                    • Radiation environment inside ISS
                                                                                                    • PROBA-1/SREM dataset on SEDAT
                                                                                                       SEDAT
                                                                                                    • Integral/SREM dataset on SEDAT
                                                                                                       SEDAT
                                                                                                    • PROBA-1/SREM radiation rates
                                                                                                       SREM
                                                                                                    • Integral/SREM radiation rates
                                                                                                       SREM
                                                                                                    Spacecraft Housekeeping Telemetry
                                                                                                      Deep Dielectric Charging
                                                                                                        Surface Charging
                                                                                                          Floating Spacecraft Potential

                                                                                                            Spacecraft Effects and Anomalies: Model and Medium-term Forecast

                                                                                                            Anomalies on Spacecraft Equipment
                                                                                                            • SPENVIS Short-term SEU rates and LET spectra
                                                                                                            • SPENVIS Long-term SEUs and LET spectra
                                                                                                            • SPENVIS Particle/wall interaction models

                                                                                                            Spacecraft Effects and Anomalies: Nowcasts

                                                                                                            Orbital Data of Spacecraft Carrying Space Weather Instruments
                                                                                                              Deep Dielectric Charging
                                                                                                              • GOES-15 Internal Charging Current
                                                                                                                 SaRIF
                                                                                                              • GOES-14 Internal Charging Current
                                                                                                                 SaRIF
                                                                                                              • GIOVE-A Internal Charging Current
                                                                                                                 SaRIF
                                                                                                              • Slot Region Internal Charging Current
                                                                                                                 SaRIF
                                                                                                              Surface Charging
                                                                                                                Floating Spacecraft Potential

                                                                                                                  Alerts: Nowcasts

                                                                                                                  All Quiet Alert
                                                                                                                  • SIDC Latest all quiet alert
                                                                                                                  End-of-quiet Alert
                                                                                                                  • SIDC Latest all quiet alert
                                                                                                                  Solar Flare Detection
                                                                                                                  • UGraz/KSO Latest Solar flare alert
                                                                                                                  • SIDC Latest Solar GOES-flare alert
                                                                                                                  • SIDC Latest human moderated alert
                                                                                                                  Solar Flare Detection and Location
                                                                                                                  • UGraz/KSO Latest Solar flare alert
                                                                                                                  • SIDC Latest human moderated alert
                                                                                                                  CME Onset
                                                                                                                  • SIDC/CACTus Latest automated halo CME alert
                                                                                                                  • H-ESC product assessment report
                                                                                                                  • Near-Earth space weather notifications
                                                                                                                  • Near-Earth CME arrival predictions (WSA-Enlil + Ensemble)
                                                                                                                  Halo CME Onset
                                                                                                                  • SIDC/CACTus Latest automated halo CME alert
                                                                                                                  • SIDC Latest human moderated alert
                                                                                                                  Coronal Hole Notification
                                                                                                                    CIR Alert
                                                                                                                    • SIDC Latest human moderated alert
                                                                                                                    • Near-Earth space weather notifications
                                                                                                                    • Automated WARnings of STEREO-A arrivals
                                                                                                                    • AWARE_NEXT Enhanced 24 hour solar wind forecast
                                                                                                                    • Automated WARnings of Earth arrivals
                                                                                                                       AWARE
                                                                                                                    Solar Particle Event Onset
                                                                                                                    • SIDC Latest human moderated alert
                                                                                                                    • Near-Earth space weather notifications
                                                                                                                    Geomagnetic Storm Warning / Solar Wind Shock Arrival
                                                                                                                    • Near-Earth space weather notifications
                                                                                                                    • Automated WARnings of STEREO-A arrivals
                                                                                                                    • Automated WARnings of Earth arrivals
                                                                                                                       AWARE
                                                                                                                    Geomagnetic Storm Onset
                                                                                                                    • SIDC Latest human moderated alert
                                                                                                                    • E-mail alerts for geomagnetic disturbances
                                                                                                                    • UAH-SWE Subscription
                                                                                                                       UAH
                                                                                                                    • UAH-SWE Report
                                                                                                                       UAH
                                                                                                                    • SolarHeed
                                                                                                                       UAH
                                                                                                                    • Sentinel G
                                                                                                                       UAH
                                                                                                                    • Sentinel C
                                                                                                                       UAH
                                                                                                                    Ionospheric Disturbance Detection
                                                                                                                    • Alerts for ionospheric disturbances in the European sector
                                                                                                                       EIS
                                                                                                                    • SISTED warning
                                                                                                                       IonSAT
                                                                                                                    • SOLERA warning
                                                                                                                       IonSAT
                                                                                                                    Ground Level Enhancement Detection

                                                                                                                    SEDAT (Space Environment Data System) is a tool for the engineering analysis of spacecraft charged particle environments. The facility provides access to the ODI database containing a large and comprehensive set of data about that environment as measured in-situ by a number of space missions. The user can select a set of space environment data appropriate to the engineering problem under study. SEDAT also offers a set of software tools, which can operate on the data retrieved from the database. These tools allow the user to carry out a wide range of engineering analyses. SEDAT is using a GUI written in Java.

                                                                                                                    SWE Data is a web application that provides access to a wide range of Space Weather related data sources covering the areas of the spacecraft, ionospheric, and ground effects. SWE Data allows the user to access all data contained in the repository providing analysis and visualisation tools from these disparate sources.

                                                                                                                    No alerts are associated with this service.

                                                                                                                    This section provides links to web pages or resources that are not part of the SSA Space Weather Network or esa.int domain.  These sites are not under ESA control, and therefore ESA is not responsible for any of the information or links that you may find there. 

                                                                                                                    Reference documents

                                                                                                                    • ECSS-E-ST-10-04C Space environment (15 November 2008)
                                                                                                                    • ECSS-E-HB-10-12A Calculation of radiation and its effects and margin policy handbook (issued on 17 December 2010)
                                                                                                                      Choose Skin