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ESA SWE Service Page Mockup: SCO/orb

Spacecraft Operation - In-orbit environment and effects monitoring



Near-real-time (NRT) observations during the past 5 days giving an overview of space environment conditions
(from top to bottom): PROBA-2/LYRA intensities in the Al and Zr channels providing solar flare observation
DSCOVR solar wind pressure and speed, Bt and Bz, GOES >10 MeV proton flux (primary and secondary
detectors), GOES >2 MeV electron flux (primary and secondary detectors), and Integral/SREM proton
count rate (43-86 MeV).


The service “Spacecraft Operation - In-orbit environment and effects monitoring” aims to provide a near-real-time estimate of the space environment and its effects actually experienced in regard to the operation of the spacecraft. To obtain a near-real-time quantitative assessment of the space environment, the ESA Space Weather Service Network provides monitoring of phenomena that can lead to potentially hazardous and sudden effects on spacecraft (e.g. magnetic storms, substorms, high-speed streams, solar energetic particle events, Earth-directed CMEs, meteor streams, and debris clouds). This continuous real-time monitoring of the space weather environment provides the relevant information to take informed decisions related to spacecraft operations and helps with the correlation of results in future analysis. Real-time data allows the system to provide forecast and near-real-time assessment of the effects of ionospheric disturbances on spacecraft operations, nowcast and forecast of meteoroid and space debris fluxes (including streams and debris clouds), as well as the atmospheric data (properties) required for drag calculation on Earth, Mars, Venus and other relevant planets.

The service is intended for personnel such as spacecraft operators who monitor the space weather conditions and provide real-time assessment of space weather risk (e.g. SEE, ESD, errors in magnetorquing and sudden drag-induced orbit changes in LEO) to spacecraft.

This service is implemented through a combination of products and tools which can be found through the following tabs along with expert support provided by the teams constituting the ESA Space Weather Service Network. Should you require further guidance in the use of this service, or have specific questions about any aspects of the service presented here, don’t hesitate to contact the Helpdesk.


A set of models and in-orbit sensor datasets are provided with the help of tools and products such as

  • the Space Environment Data System (SEDAT) allows engineering analyses to be carried out on datasets related to the spacecraft charged particle environments;
  • the Energetic Particle Telescope (EPT) on PROBA-V provides measurements of energetic electrons, protons and helium fluxes at LEO orbit;
  • the Standard Radiation Environment Monitors (SREM) on PROBA-1, Integral and Rosetta provide measurements of the particle radiation environment;
  • The Satellite Risk Indicators Forecasts (SaRIF) provides colour-coded risk indicators showing the risk from internal charging and total ionising dose for the outer radiation belt and slot region;
  • the Space Weather Data Browsing and Analysis (SWE Data) provides access to space weather environment data.


This service page is curated by the ESC Space Radiation. For further information, please contact SSCC Helpdesk


ESA mission operations centre, ESOC Darmstadt, Germany (© ESA)

Throughout its existence, the Sun goes through various nonstationary active and nonequilibrium (often eruptive) processes; this can be broadly regarded as solar activity. Solar activity covers solar surface magnetic activity, eruptive phenomena, interplanetary transients, geomagnetic disturbances, and phenomena that may affect the functioning of spacecraft. For this reason spacecraft and solar activity are monitored 24/7 by spacecraft operators.

From the Products tab, a range of products can be accessed that are useful for spacecraft operators. Measurements and detection of solar flares and coronal mass ejections are available from the Solar Influences Data Analysis Center (SIDC) and the Kanzelhöhe Observatory (KSO). The SIDC also provides a daily space weather bulletin. Energetic particle flux measurements (electrons, protons and helium) from the Energetic Particle Telescope (EPT) on board PROBA-V can be accessed. Daily radiation situation reports comparing the measurements from several Standard Radiation Environment Monitors (SREM) in various key regions with reference particle rates are provided. The SaRIF product provides a nowcast for spacecraft effects and the radiation environment in the outer radiation belt and slot region. A number of other particle radiation measurements are available through the Space Environment Data System (SEDAT) as well. Nowcast for Kp and Ap indices are provided by the Tromsø Geophysical Observatory (TGO) and the German Research Centre for Geosciences (GFZ). Information on the current and nowcasted ionospheric, thermospheric and atmospheric conditions is provided through several monitoring centres and facilities, like the Ionosphere Monitoring and Prediction Center (IMPC), the Real-Time Ionosphere Monitor (RTIM), the European Ionosonde Service (EIS), the Ionosphere Monitoring Facility (IONMON), Service Supporting Resource Exploitation System Operators (RESOSS) and TGO. A large set of measurements can also be accessed through the Space Weather Data Browsing and Analysis (SWE Data) web interface.

For further information, please contact the SSCC Helpdesk

Solar Activity: (Near-) Real-time Measurements

Solar Disc Magnetic Fields
  • Maps of electric currents in Active Region
10.7cm Solar Radio Flux (F10.7)
    Solar X-ray Flux
    • UGraz/KSO Latest Halpha light curves
    • GOES/SEM X-Ray Sensor datasets on SEDAT
       SEDAT
    Solar EUV Integrated Flux
    • Proba2/LYRA Latest data
    • Proba2/LYRA Rescaled latest data
    Solar UV Flux

    Solar Activity: Nowcasts

    Solar Flares
    • UGraz/KSO Latest Solar flare detections
    • SIDC Latest daily space weather bulletin
    CMEs
    • SIDC Latest daily space weather bulletin
    • SIDC/CACTus Automated near-real-time CME detection
    Coronal Holes
    • Synchronous synoptic maps of the solar corona in the UV and extreme-UV - Nowcast
    • SIDC Solarmap
    • SIDC Latest daily space weather bulletin
    • SIDC Latest automated coronal hole detection
    Solar Disc Magnetic Fields
      International Sunspot number
      • SIDC/SILSO International sunspot number
      • Sunspot Number Nowcast 1-day
         FORIND
      10.7cm Solar Radio Flux (F10.7)
        Solar EUV Index (S10.7)
          Solar EUV Index (E10.7)
            Solar FUV Index (M10.7)
              Solar X-ray & UV Index (Y10.7)
                Ionospheric Index (IG12)
                  Solar X-ray Flux
                  • Proba2/LYRA Rescaled latest data
                  • Proba2/LYRA Rescaled data archive
                  Solar EUV Integrated Flux
                    Solar UV Flux

                      Interplanetary Medium at L1: (Near-) Real-time Measurements

                      High Energy >10 MeV Protons
                        High Energy >10 MeV/nuc Ions
                        • ACE/SIS dataset on SEDAT
                           SEDAT
                        1-10 MeV Protons
                          1-10 MeV/nuc Ions
                            0.03-1 MeV/nuc Ions
                              2-50 MeV Solar Electrons
                                30 keV-8 MeV Electrons
                                  Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF)
                                    Solar Wind Bulk Velocity
                                      Solar Wind Bulk Density

                                        Interplanetary Medium at L1: Nowcasts

                                        High Energy >10 MeV Protons
                                        • Near-Earth NRT energetic particles (GOES)
                                           SEP/E
                                        High Energy >10 MeV/nuc Ions
                                          1-10 MeV Protons
                                            1-10 MeV/nuc Ions
                                              0.03-1 MeV/nuc Ions
                                                2-50 MeV Solar Electrons
                                                  30 keV-8 MeV Electrons
                                                    Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF)
                                                    • SIDC Latest daily space weather bulletin
                                                    • Near-Earth NRT solar wind (DSCOVR)
                                                       SW/L1
                                                    • IMF Index Nowcast 1-hour
                                                       FORIND
                                                    • IMF Index Nowcast 1-minute
                                                       FORIND
                                                    Solar Wind Bulk Velocity
                                                    • SIDC Latest daily space weather bulletin
                                                    • Near-Earth NRT solar wind (DSCOVR)
                                                       SW/L1
                                                    Solar Wind Bulk Density
                                                    • Near-Earth NRT solar wind (DSCOVR)
                                                       SW/L1

                                                    Interplanetary Medium Outside L1: (Near-) Real-time Measurements

                                                    Solar Energetic Particle Events
                                                      Interplanetary Medium Data

                                                        Interplanetary Medium Outside L1: Nowcasts

                                                        Solar Energetic Particle Events
                                                        • SIDC Latest daily space weather bulletin
                                                        Interplanetary Medium Data
                                                        • Automated WARnings of STEREO-A arrivals

                                                        Magnetospheric Environment: (Near-) Real-time Measurements

                                                        High Energy >10 MeV Protons
                                                        • Near-Earth NRT energetic particles (GOES)
                                                           SEP/E
                                                        • PROBA-V/EPT Proton flux spectra time series
                                                           EPT
                                                        • PROBA-V/EPT High-latitude/polar proton flux survey
                                                           EPT
                                                        • GOES/SEM-EPS datasets on SEDAT
                                                           SEDAT
                                                        • PROBA-1/SREM dataset on SEDAT
                                                           SEDAT
                                                        • Integral/SREM dataset on SEDAT
                                                           SEDAT
                                                        • PROBA-1/SREM radiation rates
                                                           SREM
                                                        • Integral/SREM radiation rates
                                                           SREM
                                                        • EDRS-C/NGRM L2 Proton Fluxes
                                                        • EDRS-C/NGRM Particle Daily Fluences
                                                        High Energy >10 MeV/nuc Ions
                                                        • PROBA-V/EPT Helium flux spectra time series
                                                           EPT
                                                        • PROBA-V/EPT High-latitude/polar helium flux survey
                                                           EPT
                                                        • GOES/SEM-EPS datasets on SEDAT
                                                           SEDAT
                                                        • POES/SEM-2 dataset on SEDAT
                                                           SEDAT
                                                        1-10 MeV Protons
                                                        • GOES/SEM-EPS datasets on SEDAT
                                                           SEDAT
                                                        1-10 MeV/nuc Ions
                                                        • GOES/SEM-EPS datasets on SEDAT
                                                           SEDAT
                                                        0.03-1 MeV/nuc Ions
                                                        • POES/SEM-2 dataset on SEDAT
                                                           SEDAT
                                                        30 keV-8 MeV Electrons
                                                        • PROBA-V/EPT Electron flux spectra time series
                                                           EPT
                                                        • PROBA-V/EPT High-latitude/polar electron flux survey
                                                           EPT
                                                        • GOES/SEM-EPS datasets on SEDAT
                                                           SEDAT
                                                        • PROBA-1/SREM dataset on SEDAT
                                                           SEDAT
                                                        • Integral/SREM dataset on SEDAT
                                                           SEDAT
                                                        • POES/SEM-2 dataset on SEDAT
                                                           SEDAT
                                                        • PROBA-1/SREM radiation rates
                                                           SREM
                                                        • Integral/SREM radiation rates
                                                           SREM
                                                        • EDRS-C/NGRM L2 Electron Fluxes
                                                        • EDRS-C/NGRM Particle Daily Fluences
                                                        • GEO multiple electron flux measurements
                                                        Thermal and Supra-thermal Electron and Ion Energy Spectra
                                                          Thermal Ions Density and Temperature
                                                            Plasma Drift Velocity

                                                              Magnetospheric Environment: Nowcasts

                                                              Geomagnetic Storm Condition
                                                              • 3-hourly K index: Lerwick, Eskdalemuir, Hartland
                                                                 BGS
                                                              • 3-hourly aa index
                                                                 BGS
                                                              • 3-hourly Kp index
                                                                 BGS
                                                              • 3-hourly ap index
                                                                 BGS
                                                              • Daily Aa index
                                                                 BGS
                                                              • Daily Ap index
                                                                 BGS
                                                              • 3-hourly K(GBI) index
                                                                 BGS
                                                              • Real-time one-minute Dst (ASC)
                                                                 BGS
                                                              • StormRisk
                                                              Geomagnetic Indices Kp and K
                                                              • SIDC Latest daily space weather bulletin
                                                              • Kp Index Nowcast 3-hour/GFZ
                                                                 FORIND
                                                              • Kp Index Nowcast 3-hour/BGS
                                                                 FORIND
                                                              • 3-hourly K index: Lerwick, Eskdalemuir, Hartland
                                                                 BGS
                                                              • 3-hourly Kp index
                                                                 BGS
                                                              • 3-hourly K(GBI) index
                                                                 BGS
                                                              • K-index from magnetometer stations in north Europe
                                                                 DTU K
                                                              • Nowcast Kp index
                                                                 GFZ
                                                              • Kp and Ap index on tabular form
                                                                 GFZ
                                                              • Nowcast Hp60 index
                                                              • Hp60 and ap60 index in tabular form
                                                              • Nowcast Hp30 index
                                                              • Hp30 and ap30 index in tabular form
                                                              • SIDC Latest 3-day K Dourbes forecast
                                                              Geomagnetic Index Ap and A
                                                              • SIDC Latest daily space weather bulletin
                                                              • ap index Nowcast 3-hour/BGS
                                                                 FORIND
                                                              • ap index Nowcast 3-hour/GFZ
                                                                 FORIND
                                                              • ap index Nowcast 1-day/BGS
                                                                 FORIND
                                                              • ap index Nowcast 1-day/SWPC
                                                                 FORIND
                                                              • ap index Nowcast 1-day/GFZ
                                                                 FORIND
                                                              • 3-hourly aa index
                                                                 BGS
                                                              • 3-hourly ap index
                                                                 BGS
                                                              • Daily Aa index
                                                                 BGS
                                                              • Daily Ap index
                                                                 BGS
                                                              • Kp and Ap index on tabular form
                                                                 GFZ
                                                              • Hp60 and ap60 index in tabular form
                                                              • Hp30 and ap30 index in tabular form
                                                              Geomagnetic Index Dst
                                                              • Dst Index Nowcast 1-hour
                                                                 FORIND
                                                              • Real-time one-minute Dst (ASC)
                                                                 BGS
                                                              High Energy >10 MeV Protons
                                                              • SIDC Latest daily space weather bulletin
                                                              • GEO proton flux alerts
                                                              High Energy >10 MeV/nuc Ions
                                                                1-10 MeV Protons
                                                                  1-10 MeV/nuc Ions
                                                                    0.03-1 MeV/nuc Ions
                                                                      30 keV-8 MeV Electrons
                                                                      • GOES-16 Radiation Environment
                                                                         SaRIF
                                                                      • GIOVE-A Radiation Environment
                                                                         SaRIF
                                                                      • Slot Region Radiation Environment
                                                                         SaRIF
                                                                      • MOSWOC Forecast
                                                                         SaRIF
                                                                      • GEO electron flux alerts
                                                                      Thermal and Supra-thermal Electron and Ion Energy Spectra
                                                                        Thermal Ions Density and Temperature

                                                                          Thermospheric and Atmospheric Conditions: (Near-) Real-time Measurements

                                                                          Vertical Total Electron Content Map
                                                                          • Swarm Total Electron Content (TEC)
                                                                             SUA I
                                                                          URSI Ionospheric Parameters
                                                                          • EIS Nowcast European maps of foF2
                                                                             EIS
                                                                          • EIS hmF2 maps for Europe
                                                                             EIS
                                                                          Neutral Density in Thermosphere
                                                                            Neutral Wind Velocity in Thermosphere
                                                                              Scintillation Indices and Parameters
                                                                              • Local scintillation indices S4 & σ φ Kiruna
                                                                                 IMPC
                                                                              • Local scintillation indices S4 & σ φ Neustrelitz
                                                                                 IMPC
                                                                              • Local scintillation indices S4 & σ φ Svalbard
                                                                                 IMPC
                                                                              • Local scintillation indices S4 & σ φ Tenerife
                                                                                 IMPC
                                                                              • Local scintillation indices S4 & σ φ Toulouse
                                                                                 IMPC
                                                                              • S4 and Err(S4) nowcast modelled maps
                                                                                 ISM
                                                                              • SigmaPhi and Err(SigmaPhi) nowcast modelled maps
                                                                                 ISM
                                                                              Atomic Oxygen Density
                                                                                Local External Magnetic Field on Ground
                                                                                • Horizontal magnetic rate of change (UK)
                                                                                   BGS
                                                                                • dMag/dt
                                                                                • Magnetogrammes from North(West) Europe and Greenland
                                                                                Neutral Density and Wind

                                                                                  Thermospheric and Atmospheric Conditions: Nowcasts

                                                                                  Vertical Total Electron Content Map
                                                                                  • TEC map (Europe), current
                                                                                     IMPC
                                                                                  • TEC map (Global), current
                                                                                     IMPC
                                                                                  • VTEC maps (Northern Europe)
                                                                                     RTIM
                                                                                  • IONMON TEC maps
                                                                                     IONMON
                                                                                  • EIS Near real-time TEC maps for the European region
                                                                                     EIS
                                                                                  • TEC and Err(TEC) nowcast modelled maps
                                                                                     ISM
                                                                                  • TEC and Err(TEC) nowcast modelled values at a given location
                                                                                     ISM
                                                                                  URSI Ionospheric Parameters
                                                                                  • EIS Nowcast European maps of foF2
                                                                                     EIS
                                                                                  • EIS hmF2 maps for Europe
                                                                                     EIS
                                                                                  Neutral Density in Thermosphere
                                                                                    Neutral Wind Velocity in Thermosphere
                                                                                      Scintillation Indices and Parameters
                                                                                      • Local scintillation indices S4 & σ φ Kiruna
                                                                                         IMPC
                                                                                      • Local scintillation indices S4 & σ φ Neustrelitz
                                                                                         IMPC
                                                                                      • Local scintillation indices S4 & σ φ Svalbard
                                                                                         IMPC
                                                                                      • Local scintillation indices S4 & σ φ Tenerife
                                                                                         IMPC
                                                                                      • Local scintillation indices S4 & σ φ Toulouse
                                                                                         IMPC
                                                                                      • S4 maps (Northern Europe)
                                                                                         RTIM
                                                                                      • σφ maps (Northern Europe)
                                                                                         RTIM
                                                                                      • S4 and Err(S4) nowcast modelled maps
                                                                                         ISM
                                                                                      • SigmaPhi and Err(SigmaPhi) nowcast modelled maps
                                                                                         ISM
                                                                                      • S4 and Err(S4) nowcast modelled values at a given location
                                                                                         ISM
                                                                                      • SigmaPhi and Err(SigmaPhi) nowcast modelled values at a given location
                                                                                         ISM
                                                                                      Atomic Oxygen Density
                                                                                        Local External Magnetic Field on Ground
                                                                                        • dMag/dt
                                                                                        • Magnetogrammes from North(West) Europe and Greenland
                                                                                        • LDiñ
                                                                                           UAH
                                                                                        • LCiñ
                                                                                           UAH
                                                                                        Neutral Density and Wind

                                                                                          Microparticle Environment: (Near-) Real-time Measurements

                                                                                          Micro Particle Flux

                                                                                            Microparticle Environment: Nowcasts

                                                                                            Micro Particle Flux
                                                                                              Known Periods/events of Increased Microparticle Flux

                                                                                                Spacecraft Effects and Anomalies: Data Archives

                                                                                                Anomalies on Spacecraft Equipment

                                                                                                  Spacecraft Effects and Anomalies: (Near-) Real-time Measurements

                                                                                                  Spacecraft Radiation Monitors
                                                                                                  • Radiation environment inside ISS
                                                                                                  • PROBA-1/SREM dataset on SEDAT
                                                                                                     SEDAT
                                                                                                  • Integral/SREM dataset on SEDAT
                                                                                                     SEDAT
                                                                                                  • PROBA-1/SREM radiation rates
                                                                                                     SREM
                                                                                                  • Integral/SREM radiation rates
                                                                                                     SREM
                                                                                                  Spacecraft Housekeeping Telemetry
                                                                                                    Deep Dielectric Charging
                                                                                                      Surface Charging
                                                                                                        Floating Spacecraft Potential

                                                                                                          Spacecraft Effects and Anomalies: Model and Medium-term Forecast

                                                                                                          Anomalies on Spacecraft Equipment
                                                                                                          • SPENVIS Short-term SEU rates and LET spectra
                                                                                                          • SPENVIS Long-term SEUs and LET spectra
                                                                                                          • SPENVIS Particle/wall interaction models

                                                                                                          Spacecraft Effects and Anomalies: Nowcasts

                                                                                                          Orbital Data of Spacecraft Carrying Space Weather Instruments
                                                                                                            Deep Dielectric Charging
                                                                                                            • GOES-16 Internal Charging Current
                                                                                                               SaRIF
                                                                                                            • GIOVE-A Internal Charging Current
                                                                                                               SaRIF
                                                                                                            • Slot Region Internal Charging Current
                                                                                                               SaRIF
                                                                                                            Surface Charging
                                                                                                              Floating Spacecraft Potential

                                                                                                                SEDAT (Space Environment Data System) is a tool for the engineering analysis of spacecraft charged particle environments. The facility provides access to the ODI database containing a large and comprehensive set of data about that environment as measured in-situ by a number of space missions. The user can select a set of space environment data appropriate to the engineering problem under study. SEDAT also offers a set of software tools, which can operate on the data retrieved from the database. These tools allow the user to carry out a wide range of engineering analyses. SEDAT is using a GUI written in Java.

                                                                                                                SWE Data is a web application that provides access to a wide range of Space Weather related data sources covering the areas of the spacecraft, ionospheric, and ground effects. SWE Data allows the user to access all data contained in the repository providing analysis and visualisation tools from these disparate sources.

                                                                                                                All Quiet Alert

                                                                                                                SIDC Latest all quiet alert

                                                                                                                End-of-quiet Alert

                                                                                                                SIDC Latest all quiet alert

                                                                                                                Solar Flare Detection

                                                                                                                UGraz/KSO Latest Solar flare alert

                                                                                                                SIDC Latest Solar GOES-flare alert

                                                                                                                SIDC Latest human moderated alert

                                                                                                                Solar Flare Detection and Location

                                                                                                                UGraz/KSO Latest Solar flare alert

                                                                                                                SIDC Latest human moderated alert

                                                                                                                CME Onset

                                                                                                                SIDC/CACTus Latest automated halo CME alert

                                                                                                                H-ESC product assessment report

                                                                                                                No preview available

                                                                                                                Near-Earth space weather notifications

                                                                                                                No preview available

                                                                                                                Near-Earth CME arrival predictions (WSA-Enlil + Ensemble)

                                                                                                                No preview available

                                                                                                                Halo CME Onset

                                                                                                                SIDC/CACTus Latest automated halo CME alert

                                                                                                                SIDC Latest human moderated alert

                                                                                                                Coronal Hole Notification

                                                                                                                 

                                                                                                                 

                                                                                                                CIR Alert

                                                                                                                SIDC Latest human moderated alert

                                                                                                                AWARE_NEXT Enhanced 24 hour solar wind forecast

                                                                                                                Near-Earth space weather notifications

                                                                                                                No preview available

                                                                                                                Automated WARnings of STEREO-A arrivals

                                                                                                                Automated WARnings of Earth arrivals

                                                                                                                 AWARE

                                                                                                                Solar Particle Event Onset

                                                                                                                Near-Earth space weather notifications

                                                                                                                No preview available

                                                                                                                SIDC Latest human moderated alert

                                                                                                                Geomagnetic Storm Warning / Solar Wind Shock Arrival

                                                                                                                Near-Earth space weather notifications

                                                                                                                No preview available

                                                                                                                Automated WARnings of STEREO-A arrivals

                                                                                                                Automated WARnings of Earth arrivals

                                                                                                                 AWARE

                                                                                                                StormRisk

                                                                                                                No preview available

                                                                                                                Geomagnetic Storm Onset

                                                                                                                SIDC Latest human moderated alert

                                                                                                                Geomagnetic activity alert

                                                                                                                 BGS

                                                                                                                No preview available

                                                                                                                UAH-SWE Subscription

                                                                                                                 UAH

                                                                                                                No preview available

                                                                                                                UAH-SWE Report

                                                                                                                 UAH

                                                                                                                No preview available

                                                                                                                SolarHeed

                                                                                                                 UAH

                                                                                                                No preview available

                                                                                                                Sentinel G

                                                                                                                 UAH

                                                                                                                No preview available

                                                                                                                Sentinel C

                                                                                                                 UAH

                                                                                                                No preview available

                                                                                                                Ionospheric Disturbance Detection

                                                                                                                EIS Alerts for ionospheric disturbances in the European sector

                                                                                                                 EIS

                                                                                                                SISTED warning

                                                                                                                 IonSAT

                                                                                                                No preview available

                                                                                                                SOLERA-drift warning

                                                                                                                 IonSAT

                                                                                                                No preview available

                                                                                                                Ground Level Enhancement Detection

                                                                                                                GLE Alert++

                                                                                                                 ANeMoS

                                                                                                                This section provides links to web pages or resources that are not part of the ESA Space Weather Service Network or esa.int domain.  These sites are not under ESA control, and therefore ESA is not responsible for any of the information or links that you may find there. 

                                                                                                                Reference documents

                                                                                                                • ECSS-E-ST-10-04C Space environment (15 June 2020)
                                                                                                                • ECSS-E-HB-10-12A Calculation of radiation and its effects and margin policy handbook (issued on 17 December 2010)
                                                                                                                  Choose Skin