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ESA SSA SWE Service Page Mockup: SCO/orb

Spacecraft Operation - In-orbit environment and effects monitoring



Near-real-time (NRT) observations during the past 5 days giving an overview of space environment conditions
(from top to bottom): PROBA-2/LYRA intensities in the Al and Zr channels providing solar flare observation
DSCOVR solar wind pressure and speed, Bt and Bz, GOES >10 MeV proton flux (primary and secondary
detectors), GOES >2 MeV electron flux (primary and secondary detectors), and Integral/SREM proton
count rate (43-86 MeV).


The service "Spacecraft Operation - In-orbit environment and effects monitoring" aims to provide a near-real-time estimate of the space environment and its effects actually experienced in regard to the operation of the spacecraft. To obtain a near-real-time quantitative assessment of the space environment, the SSA SWE network provides monitoring of phenomena that can lead to potentially hazardous and sudden effects on spacecraft (e.g. magnetic storms, substorms, high-speed streams, solar energetic particle events, Earth-directed CMEs, meteor streams, and debris clouds). This continuous real-time monitoring of the space weather environment provides the relevant information to take informed decisions related to spacecraft operations and helps with the correlation of results in future analysis. Real-time data allows the system to provide forecast and near-real-time assessment of the effects of ionospheric disturbances on spacecraft operations, nowcast and forecast of meteoroid and space debris fluxes (including streams and debris clouds), as well as the atmospheric data (properties) required for drag calculation on Earth, Mars, Venus and other relevant planets.

The service is intended for personnel such as spacecraft operators who monitor the space weather conditions and provide real-time assessment of space weather risk (e.g. SEE, ESD, errors in magnetorquing and sudden drag-induced orbit changes in LEO) to spacecraft.

This service is implemented through a combination of products and tools which can be found through the following tabs along with expert support provided by the teams constituting the SWE Network. Should you require further guidance in the use of this service, or have specific questions about any aspects of the service presented here, don't hesitate to contact the Helpdesk.


A set of models and in-orbit sensor datasets are provided with the help of tools and products such as

  • the Space Environment Data System (SEDAT) allows engineering analyses to be carried out on datasets related to the spacecraft charged particle environments;
  • the Energetic Particle Telescope (EPT) on PROBA-V provides measurements of energetic electrons, protons and helium fluxes at LEO orbit;
  • the Standard Radiation Environment Monitors (SREM) on PROBA-1, Integral and Rosetta provide measurements of the particle radiation environment;
  • the Space Weather Data Browsing and Analysis (SWE Data) provides access to space weather environment data.


This service page is curated by the ESC Space Radiation. For further information, please contact SSCC Help-desk


ESA mission operations centre, ESOC Darmstadt, Germany (© ESA)

Throughout its existence, the Sun goes through various nonstationary active and nonequilibrium (often eruptive) processes; this can be broadly regarded as solar activity. Solar activity covers solar surface magnetic activity, eruptive phenomena, interplanetary transients, geomagnetic disturbances, and phenomena that may affect the functioning of spacecraft. For this reason spacecraft and solar activity are monitored 24/7 by spacecraft operators.

From the Products tab, a range of products can be accessed that are useful for spacecraft operators. Measurements and detection of solar flares and coronal mass ejections are available from the Solar Influences Data Analysis Center (SIDC) and the Kanzelhöhe Observatory (KSO). The SIDC also provides a daily space weather bulletin. Energetic particle flux measurements (electrons, protons and helium) from the Energetic Particle Telescope (EPT) on board PROBA-V can be accessed. Daily radiation situation reports comparing the measurements from several Standard Radiation Environment Monitors (SREM) in various key regions with reference particle rates are provided. A number of other particle radiation measurements are available through the Space Environment Data System (SEDAT) as well. Nowcast for Kp and Ap indices are provided by the Tromsø Geophysical Observatory (TGO) and the\ German Research Centre for Geosciences (GFZ). Information on the current and nowcasted ionospheric, thermospheric and atmospheric conditions is provided through several monitoring centres and facilities, like the Ionosphere Monitoring and Prediction Center (IMPC), the Real-Time Ionosphere Monitor (RTIM), the European Ionosonde Service (EIS), the Ionosphere Monitoring Facility (IONMON), Service Supporting Resource Exploitation System Operators (RESOSS) and TGO. A large set of measurements can also be accessed through the Space Weather Data Browsing and Analysis (SWE Data) web interface.

For further information, please contact the SSCC Help-desk

Solar Activity: (Near-) Real-time Measurements

Solar Disc Magnetic Fields
    Smoothed Sunspot Number (SSN, R12)
    • SIDC/SILSO International sunspot number
    10.7cm Solar Radio Flux (F10.7)
      Solar X-ray Flux
      • GOES/SEM X-Ray Sensor datasets on SEDAT
         SEDAT
      Solar EUV Integrated Flux
      • Proba2/LYRA Latest data
      • Proba2/LYRA Rescaled latest data
      Solar UV Flux

      Solar Activity: Nowcasts

      Solar Flares
      • UGraz/KSO Latest Solar flare detections
      • SIDC Latest daily space weather bulletin
      CMEs
      • SIDC Latest daily space weather bulletin
      • SIDC/CACTus Automated near-real-time CME detection
      Coronal Holes
      • SIDC Latest daily space weather bulletin
      Solar Disc Magnetic Fields
        International Sunspot number
        • SIDC/SILSO International sunspot number
        Smoothed Sunspot Number (SSN, R12)
          10.7cm Solar Radio Flux (F10.7)
            Solar EUV Index (S10.7)
              Solar EUV Index (E10.7)
                Solar FUV Index (M10.7)
                  Solar X-ray & UV Index (Y10.7)
                    Ionospheric Index (IG12)
                      Solar X-ray Flux
                      • Proba2/LYRA Rescaled latest data
                      Solar EUV Integrated Flux
                        Solar UV Flux

                          Interplanetary Medium at L1: (Near-) Real-time Measurements

                          High Energy >10 MeV Protons
                            High Energy >10 MeV/nuc Ions
                            • ACE/SIS dataset on SEDAT
                               SEDAT
                            1-10 MeV Protons
                              1-10 MeV/nuc Ions
                                0.03-1 MeV/nuc Ions
                                  2-50 MeV Solar Electrons
                                    30 keV-8 MeV Electrons
                                      Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF)
                                        Solar Wind Bulk Velocity
                                          Solar Wind Bulk Density

                                            Interplanetary Medium at L1: Nowcasts

                                            High Energy >10 MeV Protons
                                            • Near-Earth NRT energetic particles (GOES)
                                               SEP/E
                                            High Energy >10 MeV/nuc Ions
                                              1-10 MeV Protons
                                                1-10 MeV/nuc Ions
                                                  0.03-1 MeV/nuc Ions
                                                    2-50 MeV Solar Electrons
                                                      30 keV-8 MeV Electrons
                                                        Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF)
                                                        • Near-Earth NRT solar wind (DSCOVR)
                                                           SW/L1
                                                        • IMF_SWPC_nowcast_1h
                                                           FORIND
                                                        • IMF_SWPC_nowcast_1m
                                                           FORIND
                                                        Solar Wind Bulk Velocity
                                                        • SIDC Latest daily space weather bulletin
                                                        • Near-Earth NRT solar wind (DSCOVR)
                                                           SW/L1
                                                        Solar Wind Bulk Density
                                                        • Near-Earth NRT solar wind (DSCOVR)
                                                           SW/L1

                                                        Interplanetary Medium Outside L1: (Near-) Real-time Measurements

                                                        Solar Energetic Particle Events
                                                          Interplanetary Medium Data

                                                            Interplanetary Medium Outside L1: Nowcasts

                                                            Solar Energetic Particle Events
                                                            • SIDC Latest daily space weather bulletin
                                                            Interplanetary Medium Data
                                                            • Automated WARnings of STEREO-A arrivals

                                                            Magnetospheric Environment: (Near-) Real-time Measurements

                                                            High Energy >10 MeV/nuc Ions
                                                            • PROBA-V/EPT Helium flux spectra time series
                                                               EPT
                                                            • GOES/SEM-EPS datasets on SEDAT
                                                               SEDAT
                                                            • POES/SEM-2 dataset on SEDAT
                                                               SEDAT
                                                            1-10 MeV Protons
                                                            • GOES/SEM-EPS datasets on SEDAT
                                                               SEDAT
                                                            1-10 MeV/nuc Ions
                                                            • GOES/SEM-EPS datasets on SEDAT
                                                               SEDAT
                                                            0.03-1 MeV/nuc Ions
                                                            • POES/SEM-2 dataset on SEDAT
                                                               SEDAT
                                                            30 keV-8 MeV Electrons
                                                            • PROBA-V/EPT Electron flux spectra time series
                                                               EPT
                                                            • PROBA-1/SREM radiation rates
                                                               SREM
                                                            • Integral/SREM radiation rates
                                                               SREM
                                                            • GOES/SEM-EPS datasets on SEDAT
                                                               SEDAT
                                                            • PROBA-1/SREM dataset on SEDAT
                                                               SEDAT
                                                            • Integral/SREM dataset on SEDAT
                                                               SEDAT
                                                            • POES/SEM-2 dataset on SEDAT
                                                               SEDAT
                                                            Thermal and Supra-thermal Electron and Ion Energy Spectra
                                                              Thermal Ions Density and Temperature
                                                                Plasma Drift Velocity

                                                                  Magnetospheric Environment: Nowcasts

                                                                  Geomagnetic Storm Condition
                                                                  • Swarm Polar Electrojet (PEJ)
                                                                     SUA
                                                                  Geomagnetic Indices Kp and K
                                                                  • SIDC Latest daily space weather bulletin
                                                                  • Kp_GFZ_nowcast
                                                                     FORIND
                                                                  • Kp_NMH_nowcast
                                                                     FORIND
                                                                  • Provisional K-indices from Northwest Europe
                                                                     TGO
                                                                  • Quicklook Kp index
                                                                     GFZ
                                                                  • Kp and Ap index on tabular form
                                                                     GFZ
                                                                  Geomagnetic Index Ap and A
                                                                  • SIDC Latest daily space weather bulletin
                                                                  • ap_NMH_nowcast
                                                                     FORIND
                                                                  • ap_GFZ_nowcast
                                                                     FORIND
                                                                  • Ap_NMH_nowcast
                                                                     FORIND
                                                                  • Ap_SWPC_nowcast_geomag
                                                                     FORIND
                                                                  • Ap_GFZ_nowcast
                                                                     FORIND
                                                                  • Kp and Ap index on tabular form
                                                                     GFZ
                                                                  Geomagnetic Index Dst
                                                                  • DST_nowcast
                                                                     FORIND
                                                                  • UAH-SWE Subscription
                                                                     UAH
                                                                  High Energy >10 MeV Protons
                                                                    High Energy >10 MeV/nuc Ions
                                                                      1-10 MeV Protons
                                                                        1-10 MeV/nuc Ions
                                                                          0.03-1 MeV/nuc Ions
                                                                            30 keV-8 MeV Electrons
                                                                            • Near-Earth NRT energetic particles (GOES)
                                                                               SEP/E
                                                                            Thermal and Supra-thermal Electron and Ion Energy Spectra
                                                                              Thermal Ions Density and Temperature

                                                                                Thermospheric and Atmospheric Conditions: (Near-) Real-time Measurements

                                                                                Vertical Total Electron Content Map
                                                                                • Swarm Total Electron Content (TEC)
                                                                                   SUA
                                                                                URSI Ionospheric Parameters
                                                                                • Nowcast European maps of foF2
                                                                                   EIS
                                                                                Neutral Density in Thermosphere
                                                                                  Neutral Wind Velocity in Thermosphere
                                                                                    Scintillation Indices and Parameters
                                                                                    • Local scintillation indices S4 & σφ Kiruna
                                                                                       IMPC
                                                                                    • Local scintillation indices S4 & σφ Neustrelitz
                                                                                       IMPC
                                                                                    • Local scintillation indices S4 & σφ Svalbard
                                                                                       IMPC
                                                                                    • Local scintillation indices S4 & σφ Tenerife
                                                                                       IMPC
                                                                                    • Local scintillation indices S4 & σφ Toulouse
                                                                                       IMPC
                                                                                    • S4 maps (Northern Europe)
                                                                                       RTIM
                                                                                    • σφ maps (Northern Europe)
                                                                                       RTIM
                                                                                    • S4 and Err(S4) nowcast modelled maps
                                                                                       ISM
                                                                                    • SigmaPhi and Err(SigmaPhi) nowcast modelled maps
                                                                                       ISM
                                                                                    Atomic Oxygen Density
                                                                                      Local External Magnetic Field on Ground
                                                                                      • Magnetogrammes from North(west) Europe and Greenland
                                                                                         TGO
                                                                                      • Real-time and historic geomagnetic activity plots and data files for geomagnetic surveying (total field)
                                                                                         RESOSS
                                                                                      • Real-time and historic geomagnetic activity plots and data files for directional drilling (total field, declination and inclination)
                                                                                         RESOSS
                                                                                      Neutral Density and Wind

                                                                                        Thermospheric and Atmospheric Conditions: Nowcasts

                                                                                        Vertical Total Electron Content Map
                                                                                        • TEC map (Europe), current
                                                                                           IMPC
                                                                                        • TEC map (Global), current
                                                                                           IMPC
                                                                                        • VTEC maps (Northern Europe)
                                                                                           RTIM
                                                                                        • IONMON TEC maps
                                                                                           IONMON
                                                                                        • Near-real-time TEC maps for the European region
                                                                                           EIS
                                                                                        • TEC and Err(TEC) nowcast modelled maps
                                                                                           ISM
                                                                                        • TEC and Err(TEC) nowcast modelled values at a given location
                                                                                           ISM
                                                                                        URSI Ionospheric Parameters
                                                                                        • Nowcast European maps of foF2
                                                                                           EIS
                                                                                        Neutral Density in Thermosphere
                                                                                          Neutral Wind Velocity in Thermosphere
                                                                                            Scintillation Indices and Parameters
                                                                                            • Local scintillation indices S4 & σφ Kiruna
                                                                                               IMPC
                                                                                            • Local scintillation indices S4 & σφ Neustrelitz
                                                                                               IMPC
                                                                                            • Local scintillation indices S4 & σφ Svalbard
                                                                                               IMPC
                                                                                            • Local scintillation indices S4 & σφ Tenerife
                                                                                               IMPC
                                                                                            • Local scintillation indices S4 & σφ Toulouse
                                                                                               IMPC
                                                                                            • S4 maps (Northern Europe)
                                                                                               RTIM
                                                                                            • σφ maps (Northern Europe)
                                                                                               RTIM
                                                                                            • S4 and Err(S4) nowcast modelled maps
                                                                                               ISM
                                                                                            • SigmaPhi and Err(SigmaPhi) nowcast modelled maps
                                                                                               ISM
                                                                                            • S4 and Err(S4) nowcast modelled values at a given location
                                                                                               ISM
                                                                                            • SigmaPhi and Err(SigmaPhi) nowcast modelled values at a given location
                                                                                               ISM
                                                                                            • S4 observed map as quality data for ISM S4 nowcast modelled maps
                                                                                            • SigmaPhi observed map as quality data for ISM SigmaPhi nowcast modelled maps
                                                                                            Atomic Oxygen Density
                                                                                              Local External Magnetic Field on Ground
                                                                                              • Magnetogrammes from North(west) Europe and Greenland
                                                                                                 TGO
                                                                                              • LDiñ
                                                                                                 UAH
                                                                                              • LCiñ
                                                                                                 UAH
                                                                                              • Real-time and historic geomagnetic activity plots and data files for geomagnetic surveying (total field)
                                                                                                 RESOSS
                                                                                              • Real-time and historic geomagnetic activity plots and data files for directional drilling (total field, declination and inclination)
                                                                                                 RESOSS
                                                                                              Neutral Density and Wind

                                                                                                Microparticle Environment: (Near-) Real-time Measurements

                                                                                                Micro Particle Flux

                                                                                                  Microparticle Environment: Nowcasts

                                                                                                  Micro Particle Flux
                                                                                                    Known Periods/events of Increased Microparticle Flux

                                                                                                      Spacecraft Effects and Anomalies: Data Archives

                                                                                                      Anomalies on Spacecraft Equipment

                                                                                                        Spacecraft Effects and Anomalies: (Near-) Real-time Measurements

                                                                                                        Spacecraft Radiation Monitors
                                                                                                        • Radiation environment inside ISS
                                                                                                        • PROBA-1/SREM radiation rates
                                                                                                           SREM
                                                                                                        • Integral/SREM radiation rates
                                                                                                           SREM
                                                                                                        • PROBA-1/SREM dataset on SEDAT
                                                                                                           SEDAT
                                                                                                        • Integral/SREM dataset on SEDAT
                                                                                                           SEDAT
                                                                                                        Spacecraft Housekeeping Telemetry
                                                                                                          Deep Dielectric Charging
                                                                                                            Surface Charging
                                                                                                              Floating Spacecraft Potential

                                                                                                                Spacecraft Effects and Anomalies: Models and Reconstruction

                                                                                                                Anomalies on Spacecraft Equipment
                                                                                                                • SPENVIS Short-term SEU rates and LET spectra
                                                                                                                • SPENVIS Long-term SEUs and LET spectra
                                                                                                                • SPENVIS Particle/wall interaction models

                                                                                                                Spacecraft Effects and Anomalies: Nowcasts

                                                                                                                Orbital Data of Spacecraft Carrying Space Weather Instruments
                                                                                                                  Deep Dielectric Charging
                                                                                                                    Surface Charging
                                                                                                                      Floating Spacecraft Potential

                                                                                                                        SEDAT (Space Environment Data System) is a tool for the engineering analysis of spacecraft charged particle environments. The facility provides access to the ODI database containing a large and comprehensive set of data about that environment as measured in-situ by a number of space missions. The user can select a set of space environment data appropriate to the engineering problem under study. SEDAT also offers a set of software tools, which can operate on the data retrieved from the database. These tools allow the user to carry out a wide range of engineering analyses. SEDAT is using a GUI written in Java.

                                                                                                                        The Space Environment Information System for Operations (SEISOP) provides an interface for spacecraft operators allowing comparison of space environment information with spacecraft housekeeping data. The combination of these different data types enables advanced correlation and analysis, for a better understanding of how Space Weather effects impact the status and health of the operator's spacecraft. In addition to presenting data originating from diverse external data providers, SEISOP provides several built-in Space Weather models for near-real-time forecasting of Space Weather events and alerting.

                                                                                                                        SWE Data is a web application that provides access to a wide range of Space Weather related data sources covering the areas of the spacecraft, ionospheric, and ground effects. SWE Data allows the user to access all data contained in the repository providing analysis and visualisation tools from these disparate sources.

                                                                                                                        No alerts are associated with this service.

                                                                                                                        This section provides links to web pages or resources that are not part of the SSA Space Weather Network or esa.int domain.  These sites are not under ESA control, and therefore ESA is not responsible for any of the information or links that you may find there. 

                                                                                                                        Reference documents

                                                                                                                        • ECSS-E-ST-10-04C Space environment (15 November 2008)
                                                                                                                        • ECSS-E-HB-10-12A Calculation of radiation and its effects and margin policy handbook (issued on 17 December 2010)