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ESA SSA SWE Service Page Mockup: SCO/orb

Spacecraft Operation - In-orbit environment and effects monitoring



Near real-time (NRT) observations during the past 5 days giving an overview of space environment conditions
(from top to bottom): PROBA-2/LYRA intensities in the Al and Zr channels providing solar flare observation
DSCOVR solar wind pressure and speed, Bt and Bz, GOES >10 MeV proton flux (primary and secondary
detectors), GOES >2 MeV electron flux (primary and secondary detectors), and Integral/SREM proton
count rate (43-86 MeV).


The service "Spacecraft Operation - In-orbit environment and effects monitoring" aims to provide a near real-time estimate of the space environment and its effects actually experienced in regard to the operation of the spacecraft. To obtain a near real-time quantitative assessment of the space environment, the SSA SWE network provides monitoring of phenomena that can lead to potentially hazardous and sudden effects on spacecraft (e.g. magnetic storms, substorms, high-speed streams, solar energetic particle events, Earth-directed CMEs, meteor streams, and debris clouds). This continuous real-time monitoring of the space weather environment provides the relevant information to take informed decisions related to spacecraft operations and helps with the correlation of results in future analysis. Real-time data allows the system to provide forecast and near real-time assessment of the effects of ionospheric disturbances on spacecraft operations, nowcast and forecast of meteoroid and space debris fluxes (including streams and debris clouds), as well as the atmospheric data (properties) required for drag calculation on Earth, Mars, Venus and other relevant planets.

The service is intended for personnel such as spacecraft operators who monitor the space weather conditions and provide real-time assessment of space weather risk (e.g. SEE, ESD, errors in magnetorquing and sudden drag-induced orbit changes in LEO) to spacecraft.

This service is implemented through a combination of products, tools and alerts which can be found through the following tabs along with expert support provided by the teams constituting the SWE Network. Should you require further guidance in the use of this service, or have specific questions about any aspects of the service presented here, don't hesitate to contact the Helpdesk.


A set of models and in-orbit sensor datasets are provided with the help of tools and products such as

  • the Space Environment Data System (SEDAT) allows engineering analyses to be carried out on datasets related to the spacecraft charged particle environments;
  • the Energetic Particle Telescope (EPT) on PROBA-V provides measurements of energetic electrons, protons and helium fluxes at LEO orbit;
  • the Standard Radiation Environment Monitors (SREM) on PROBA-1, Integral and Rosetta provide measurements of the particle radiation environment;
  • the Space Weather Data Browsing and Analysis (SWE Data) provides access to space weather environment data.


This service page is curated by the ESC Space Radiation. For further information, please contact SSCC Help-desk


ESA mission operations centre, ESOC Darmstadt, Germany (© ESA)

Throughout its existence, the Sun goes through various nonstationary active and nonequilibrium (often eruptive) processes; this can be broadly regarded as solar activity. Solar activity covers solar surface magnetic activity, eruptive phenomena, interplanetary transients, geomagnetic disturbances, and phenomena that may affect the functioning of spacecraft. For this reason spacecraft and solar activity are monitored 24/7 by spacecraft operators.

From the Products tab, a range of products can be accessed that are useful for spacecraft operators. Measurements and detection of solar flares and coronal mass ejections are available from the Solar Influences Data Analysis Center (SIDC) and the Kanzelhöhe Observatory (KSO). The SIDC also provides a daily space weather bulletin. Energetic particle flux measurements (electrons, protons and helium) from the Energetic Particle Telescope (EPT) on board PROBA-V can be accessed. A number of other particle radiation measurements are available through the Space Environment Data System (SEDAT) as well. Nowcast for Kp and Ap indices are provided by the Tromsø Geophysical Observatory (TGO) and GeoForschungsZentrum (GFZ). Information on the current and nowcasted ionospheric, thermospheric and atmospheric conditions is provided through several monitoring centres and facilities, like the Ionosphere Monitoring and Prediction Center (IMPC), the Real-Time Ionosphere Monitor (RTIM), the European Ionosonde Service (EIS), the Ionosphere Monitoring Facility (IONMON), Service Supporting Resource Exploitation System Operators (RESOSS) and TGO. A large set of measurements can also be accessed through the Space Weather Data Browsing and Analysis (SWE Data) web interface.

For further information, please contact the SSCC Help-desk

Solar Activity: (Near) Realtime Measurements

Solar Disc Magnetic Fields
    Smoothed Sunspot Number (SSN, R12)
    • SIDC/SILSO International sunspot number
    10.7cm Solar Radio Flux (F10.7)
      Solar X-ray Flux
      • GOES/SEM X-Ray Sensor datasets on SEDAT
         SEDAT
      Solar EUV Integrated Flux
      • Proba2/LYRA Latest data
      • Proba2/LYRA Rescaled latest data
      Solar UV Flux

      Solar Activity: Nowcasts

      Solar Flares
      • UGraz/KSO Latest Solar flare detections
      • SIDC Latest daily space weather bulletin
      CMEs
      • SIDC Latest daily space weather bulletin
      • SIDC/CACTus Automated near real time CME detection
      Coronal Holes
      • SIDC Latest daily space weather bulletin
      Solar Disc Magnetic Fields
        International Sunspot number
        • SIDC/SILSO International sunspot number
        Smoothed Sunspot Number (SSN, R12)
          10.7cm Solar Radio Flux (F10.7)
            Solar EUV Index (S10.7)
              Solar EUV Index (E10.7)
                Solar FUV Index (M10.7)
                  Solar X-ray & UV Index (Y10.7)
                    Ionospheric Index (IG12)
                      Solar X-ray Flux
                      • Proba2/LYRA Rescaled latest data
                      Solar EUV Integrated Flux
                        Solar UV Flux

                          Interplanetary Medium at L1: (Near) Realtime Measurements

                          High Energy >10 MeV Protons
                            High Energy >10 MeV/nuc Ions
                            • ACE/SIS dataset on SEDAT
                               SEDAT
                            1-10 MeV Protons
                              1-10 MeV/nuc Ions
                                0.03-1 MeV/nuc Ions
                                  2-50 MeV Solar Electrons
                                    30 keV-8 MeV Electrons
                                      Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF)
                                        Solar Wind Bulk Velocity
                                          Solar Wind Bulk Density

                                            Interplanetary Medium at L1: Nowcasts

                                            High Energy >10 MeV Protons
                                              High Energy >10 MeV/nuc Ions
                                                1-10 MeV Protons
                                                  1-10 MeV/nuc Ions
                                                    0.03-1 MeV/nuc Ions
                                                      2-50 MeV Solar Electrons
                                                        30 keV-8 MeV Electrons
                                                          Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF)
                                                          • Near-Earth NRT solar wind (DSCOVR)
                                                             SELSWE
                                                          Solar Wind Bulk Velocity
                                                          • SIDC Latest daily space weather bulletin
                                                          • Near-Earth NRT solar wind (DSCOVR)
                                                             SELSWE
                                                          Solar Wind Bulk Density
                                                          • Near-Earth NRT solar wind (DSCOVR)
                                                             SELSWE

                                                          Interplanetary Medium Outside L1: (Near) Realtime Measurements

                                                          Solar Energetic Particle Events
                                                            Interplanetary Medium Data

                                                              Interplanetary Medium Outside L1: Nowcasts

                                                              Solar Energetic Particle Events
                                                              • SIDC Latest daily space weather bulletin
                                                              Interplanetary Medium Data

                                                                Magnetospheric Environment: (Near) Realtime Measurements

                                                                High Energy >10 MeV/nuc Ions
                                                                • PROBA-V/EPT Helium flux spectra time series
                                                                   EPT
                                                                • Radiation environment at ISS orbit
                                                                • Radiation environment inside ISS
                                                                • GOES/SEM-EPS datasets on SEDAT
                                                                   SEDAT
                                                                • POES/SEM-2 dataset on SEDAT
                                                                   SEDAT
                                                                1-10 MeV Protons
                                                                • GOES/SEM-EPS datasets on SEDAT
                                                                   SEDAT
                                                                1-10 MeV/nuc Ions
                                                                • GOES/SEM-EPS datasets on SEDAT
                                                                   SEDAT
                                                                0.03-1 MeV/nuc Ions
                                                                • POES/SEM-2 dataset on SEDAT
                                                                   SEDAT
                                                                30 keV-8 MeV Electrons
                                                                • PROBA-V/EPT Electron flux spectra time series
                                                                   EPT
                                                                • GOES/SEM-EPS datasets on SEDAT
                                                                   SEDAT
                                                                • PROBA-1/SREM dataset on SEDAT
                                                                   SEDAT
                                                                • Integral/SREM dataset on SEDAT
                                                                   SEDAT
                                                                • POES/SEM-2 dataset on SEDAT
                                                                   SEDAT
                                                                • Time series of PROBA-1/SREM radiation rates
                                                                • Time series of Integral/SREM radiation rates
                                                                Thermal and Supra-thermal Electron and Ion Energy Spectra
                                                                  Thermal Ions Density and Temperature
                                                                    Plasma Drift Velocity

                                                                      Magnetospheric Environment: Nowcasts

                                                                      Geomagnetic Storm Condition
                                                                        Geomagnetic Indices Kp and K
                                                                        • SIDC Latest daily space weather bulletin
                                                                        • Provisional K-indices from Northwest Europe
                                                                           TGO
                                                                        • Quicklook Kp index
                                                                           GFZ
                                                                        • Kp and Ap index on tabular form
                                                                           GFZ
                                                                        Geomagnetic Index Ap and A
                                                                        • SIDC Latest daily space weather bulletin
                                                                        • Kp and Ap index on tabular form
                                                                           GFZ
                                                                        Geomagnetic Index Dst
                                                                          High Energy >10 MeV Protons
                                                                            High Energy >10 MeV/nuc Ions
                                                                              1-10 MeV Protons
                                                                                1-10 MeV/nuc Ions
                                                                                  0.03-1 MeV/nuc Ions
                                                                                    30 keV-8 MeV Electrons
                                                                                    • Near-Earth NRT energetic particles (GOES)
                                                                                       SELSWE
                                                                                    Thermal and Supra-thermal Electron and Ion Energy Spectra
                                                                                    • Plasmasphere electron density distribution model
                                                                                    Thermal Ions Density and Temperature

                                                                                      Ionospheric, Thermospheric and Atmospheric Conditions: (Near) Realtime Measurements

                                                                                      Vertical Total Electron Content Map
                                                                                        URSI Ionospheric Parameters
                                                                                        • Nowcast European maps of foF2
                                                                                           EIS
                                                                                        Neutral Density in Thermosphere
                                                                                          Neutral Wind Velocity in Thermosphere
                                                                                            Scintillation Indices and Parameters
                                                                                            • Local scintillation indices S4 & σφ Kiruna
                                                                                               IMPC
                                                                                            • Local scintillation indices S4 & σφ Neustrelitz
                                                                                               IMPC
                                                                                            • Local scintillation indices S4 & σφ Svalbard
                                                                                               IMPC
                                                                                            • Local scintillation indices S4 & σφ Tenerife
                                                                                               IMPC
                                                                                            • Local scintillation indices S4 & σφ Toulouse
                                                                                               IMPC
                                                                                            • S4 maps (northern Europe)
                                                                                               RTIM
                                                                                            • σφ maps (northern Europe)
                                                                                               RTIM
                                                                                            • S4 and Err(S4) nowcast modelized maps
                                                                                               ISM
                                                                                            • SigmaPhi and Err(SigmaPhi) nowcast modelized maps
                                                                                               ISM
                                                                                            Atomic Oxygen Density
                                                                                              Local External Magnetic Field on Ground
                                                                                              • Magnetogrammes from North(west) Europe and Greenland
                                                                                                 TGO
                                                                                              • Real-time and historic geomagnetic activity plots and data files for geomagnetic surveying (total field)
                                                                                                 RESOSS
                                                                                              • Real-time and historic geomagnetic activity plots and data files for directional drilling (total field, declination and inclination)
                                                                                                 RESOSS
                                                                                              Neutral Density and Wind

                                                                                                Ionospheric, Thermospheric and Atmospheric Conditions: Nowcasts

                                                                                                Vertical Total Electron Content Map
                                                                                                • TEC map (Europe), current
                                                                                                   IMPC
                                                                                                • TEC map (Global), current
                                                                                                   IMPC
                                                                                                • VTEC maps (northern Europe)
                                                                                                   RTIM
                                                                                                • IONMON TEC maps
                                                                                                   IONMON
                                                                                                • Near real-time TEC maps for the European region
                                                                                                   EIS
                                                                                                • TEC and Err(TEC) nowcast modelized maps
                                                                                                   ISM
                                                                                                • TEC and Err(TEC) nowcast modelized values at a given location
                                                                                                   ISM
                                                                                                URSI Ionospheric Parameters
                                                                                                • Nowcast European maps of foF2
                                                                                                   EIS
                                                                                                Neutral Density in Thermosphere
                                                                                                  Neutral Wind Velocity in Thermosphere
                                                                                                    Scintillation Indices and Parameters
                                                                                                    • Local scintillation indices S4 & σφ Kiruna
                                                                                                       IMPC
                                                                                                    • Local scintillation indices S4 & σφ Neustrelitz
                                                                                                       IMPC
                                                                                                    • Local scintillation indices S4 & σφ Svalbard
                                                                                                       IMPC
                                                                                                    • Local scintillation indices S4 & σφ Tenerife
                                                                                                       IMPC
                                                                                                    • Local scintillation indices S4 & σφ Toulouse
                                                                                                       IMPC
                                                                                                    • S4 maps (northern Europe)
                                                                                                       RTIM
                                                                                                    • σφ maps (northern Europe)
                                                                                                       RTIM
                                                                                                    • S4 and Err(S4) nowcast modelized maps
                                                                                                       ISM
                                                                                                    • SigmaPhi and Err(SigmaPhi) nowcast modelized maps
                                                                                                       ISM
                                                                                                    • S4 and Err(S4) nowcast modelized values at a given location
                                                                                                       ISM
                                                                                                    • SigmaPhi and Err(SigmaPhi) nowcast modelized values at a given location
                                                                                                       ISM
                                                                                                    • S4 observed map as quality data for ISM S4 nowcast modelized maps
                                                                                                    • SigmaPhi observed map as quality data for ISM SigmaPhi nowcast modelized maps
                                                                                                    Atomic Oxygen Density
                                                                                                      Local External Magnetic Field on Ground
                                                                                                      • Magnetogrammes from North(west) Europe and Greenland
                                                                                                         TGO
                                                                                                      • Real-time and historic geomagnetic activity plots and data files for geomagnetic surveying (total field)
                                                                                                         RESOSS
                                                                                                      • Real-time and historic geomagnetic activity plots and data files for directional drilling (total field, declination and inclination)
                                                                                                         RESOSS
                                                                                                      Neutral Density and Wind

                                                                                                        Microparticle Environment: (Near) Realtime Measurements

                                                                                                        Micro Particle Flux

                                                                                                          Microparticle Environment: Nowcasts

                                                                                                          Micro Particle Flux
                                                                                                            Known Periods/events of Increased Microparticle Flux

                                                                                                              Spacecraft Effects and Anomalies: Data Archives

                                                                                                              Anomalies on Spacecraft Equipment

                                                                                                                Spacecraft Effects and Anomalies: (Near) Realtime Measurements

                                                                                                                Spacecraft Radiation Monitors
                                                                                                                • Radiation environment at ISS orbit
                                                                                                                • Radiation environment inside ISS
                                                                                                                • PROBA-1/SREM dataset on SEDAT
                                                                                                                   SEDAT
                                                                                                                • Integral/SREM dataset on SEDAT
                                                                                                                   SEDAT
                                                                                                                • Integral/SREM dataset on SEDAT
                                                                                                                   SEDAT
                                                                                                                • Time series of PROBA-1/SREM radiation rates
                                                                                                                • Time series of Integral/SREM radiation rates
                                                                                                                Spacecraft Housekeeping Telemetry
                                                                                                                  Deep Dielectric Charging
                                                                                                                    Surface Charging
                                                                                                                      Floating Spacecraft Potential

                                                                                                                        Spacecraft Effects and Anomalies: Nowcasts

                                                                                                                        Orbital Data of Spacecraft Carrying Space Weather Instruments
                                                                                                                          Deep Dielectric Charging
                                                                                                                            Surface Charging
                                                                                                                              Floating Spacecraft Potential

                                                                                                                                SEDAT (Space Environment Data System) is a tool for the engineering analysis of spacecraft charged particle environments. The facility provides access to the ODI database containing a large and comprehensive set of data about that environment as measured in-situ by a number of space missions. The user can select a set of space environment data appropriate to the engineering problem under study. SEDAT also offers a set of software tools, which can operate on the data retrieved from the database. These tools allow the user to carry out a wide range of engineering analyses. SEDAT is using a GUI written in Java.

                                                                                                                                The Space Environment Information System for Operations (SEISOP) provides an interface for spacecraft operators allowing comparison of space environment information with spacecraft housekeeping data. The combination of these different data types enables advanced correlation and analysis, for a better understanding of how Space Weather effects impact the status and health of the operator's spacecraft. In addition to presenting data originating from diverse external data providers, SEISOP provides several built-in Space Weather models for near-real-time forecasting of Space Weather events and alerting.

                                                                                                                                SWE Data is a web application that provides access to a wide range of Space Weather related data sources covering the areas of the spacecraft, ionospheric, and ground effects. SWE Data allows the user to access all data contained in the repository providing analysis and visualisation tools from these disparate sources.

                                                                                                                                No alerts are associated with this service.

                                                                                                                                This section provides links to web pages or resources that are not part of the SSA Space Weather Network or esa.int domain.  These sites are not under ESA control, and therefore ESA is not responsible for any of the information or links that you may find there. 

                                                                                                                                Reference documents

                                                                                                                                • ECSS-E-ST-10-04C Space environment (15 November 2008)
                                                                                                                                • ECSS-E-HB-10-12A Calculation of radiation and its effects and margin policy handbook (issued on 17 December 2010)