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Human Spaceflight - Cumulative crew radiation exposure


The proton flux between 61 and 92 MeV
as measured by PROBA-V/EPT at LEO orbit

The service "Human Spaceflight: Cumulative crew radiation exposure" aims to provide an estimate of the past radiation dose accumulated by a person in space. Radiation environments considered include Earth's radiation belts, galactic cosmic rays, and solar energetic particles. This service is made possible by maintaining accurate records of local area radiation fluxes combined with spacecraft and human phantom shielding geometry models and onboard passive or active dosimeter data (e.g. thermoluminescent dosimeters [TLDs], tissue equivalent proportional counters [TEPCs]). The service is intended for personnel involved in providing Post Event Analysis with the reconstruction of the space particle radiation environment at a given time and location to allow the accurate evaluation of doses inside human bodies.

This service is implemented through a combination of products, tools and alerts which can be found through the following tabs along with expert support provided by the teams constituting the SWE Network. Should you require further guidance in the use of this service, or have specific questions about any aspects of the service presented here, don't hesitate to contact the Helpdesk.

A number of models and in-orbit sensor datasets are provided with the help of products and tools such as:

  • the RadSpace products provide the radiation environment and accumulated dose in human phantoms at ISS;
  • measurements and derived data products from the Energetic Particle Telescope (EPT) on PROBA-V;
  • measurements and derived data products from the Standard Radiation Environment Monitors (SREM) on Proba-1, Integral, Rosetta, Herschel and Planck;
  • the Space Environment Information System (SPENVIS) coupling several empirical and engineering models of the space environment and its effects on spacecraft or components based on a mission plan;
  • the Solar Energetic Particle Environment Modelling application (SEPEM) allowing solar energetic particle statistical analyses on an extended set of cross-calibrated data;
  • the Space Weather Data Browsing and Analysis (SWE Data) is a web application that provides access to space weather environment data.

This service page is curated by the ESC Space Radiation. For further information, please contact SSCC Help-desk.


An astronaut on a spacewalk outside the ISS (© ESA)

Particle radiation is considered the main hazard for human spaceflight, specifically when considering a potential return trip to the Moon or interplanetary travel in general. However, even at Low Earth Orbit (LEO) like the International Space Station, particle radiation poses a risk. Information is thus needed to evaluate the possible health effects of space particle radiation on humans on short-and long-term space missions. This includes space environment data (e.g. particle radiation, solar X-ray and UV observations) and dose measurements.

Energetic particle flux measurements (electrons, protons and helium) from the Energetic Particle Telescope (EPT) on board PROBA-V at LEO can be accessed from the Products tab. A number of other particle radiation measurements are available through the Space Environment Data System (SEDAT) as well. Note that the particle fluxes need to be properly propagated through the Earth's magnetosphere if the user is interested in knowing the flux at a different altitude other than where the measurements were taken.

Measurements and detection of solar flares and coronal mass ejections are provided by the Solar Influences Data Analysis Center (SIDC) and the Kanzelhöhe Observatory (KSO). Archives of geomagnetic indices are available from the Tromsø Geophysical Observatory (TGO), the GeoForschungsZentrum (GFZ) and SEDAT. A large set of measurements can also be accessed through the Space Weather Data Browsing and Analysis (SWE Data) web interface.

In order to study the specific radiation environment near and inside a spacecraft, a tool such as the Space Environment Information System (SPENVIS) could be used. This tool allows the execution of a set of space environment models based on a mission scenario (mission duration, typical spacecraft trajectories and spacecraft attitude) and to evaluate impacts and risks by propagating the results into engineering models. The tool includes graphical visualisation and an extended help with background information and references to the European standards. For a more comprehensive analysis of the space environment effects, the SPENVIS output could be exported to more specific applications, such as GRAS (Geant4 Radiation Analysis for Space) or SPIS (Spacecraft Plasma Interaction Software), that are taking into account the detailed geometry of the spacecraft.

For further information, please contact SSCC Help-desk

Solar Activity: Data Archives

Solar Flares
  • UGraz/KSO Solar flare detection archive
  • SIDC Solar flare forecast archive
CMEs
  • SIDC/CACTus Automated near real time CME detection
Coronal Holes
    Solar Disc Magnetic Fields
      International Sunspot number
      • SIDC/SILSO International sunspot number
      • Automated Multi Dataset Analysis (AMDA)
         AMDA
      • Solar index archive for thermospheric drag calculation
         SGIArv
      10.7cm Solar Radio Flux (F10.7)
      • SIDC 10.7cm Solar radio flux (F10.7) forecast archive
      • Automated Multi Dataset Analysis (AMDA)
         AMDA
      • Solar index archive for thermospheric drag calculation
         SGIArv
      Solar EUV Index (S10.7)
      • Solar index archive for thermospheric drag calculation
         SGIArv
      Solar EUV Index (E10.7)
        Solar FUV Index (M10.7)
        • Solar index archive for thermospheric drag calculation
           SGIArv
        Solar X-ray & UV Index (Y10.7)
        • Solar index archive for thermospheric drag calculation
           SGIArv
        Ionospheric Index (IG12)
        • Geomagnetic activity index archive for thermospheric drag calculation
           SGIArv
        EUV Images of Sun
        • Proba2/SWAP Level 0 quicklook image archive
        • Proba2/SWAP Media level image archive
        • Proba2/SWAP Active region annotated image archive
        • SDO/AIA Solar EUV image archive
        White Light Solar Imaging
        • UGraz/KSO White light Solar images archive
        • INAF/OACT White light Solar images archive
        • SIDC/USET White light Solar images archive
        Soft X-ray Images of the Sun
          Solar EUV Images Outside of Sun-Earth Line
            Solar Coronagraphic Images Outside of Sun-Earth Line
              White-light wide-angle Coronagraph Images
                Solar X-ray Flux
                • Proba2/LYRA Rescaled data archive
                • GOES/SEM X-Ray Sensor datasets on SEDAT
                   SEDAT
                Solar EUV Integrated Flux
                • Proba2/LYRA Data archive
                • Proba2/LYRA Rescaled data archive
                Solar UV Flux

                Solar Activity: (Near) Realtime Measurements

                Solar Disc Magnetic Fields
                  10.7cm Solar Radio Flux (F10.7)

                    Interplanetary Medium at L1: Data Archives

                    High Energy >10 MeV Protons
                    • Automated Multi Dataset Analysis (AMDA)
                       AMDA
                    High Energy >10 MeV/nuc Ions
                    • ACE/SIS dataset on SEDAT
                       SEDAT
                    • Raw ACE/EPAM ions, e, He, O, Fe channels in SEPEM
                    • Raw ACE/SEPICA data in SEPEM
                    • Automated Multi Dataset Analysis (AMDA)
                       AMDA
                    1-10 MeV Protons
                    • Raw ACE/SEPICA data in SEPEM
                    • Automated Multi Dataset Analysis (AMDA)
                       AMDA
                    1-10 MeV/nuc Ions
                    • Raw ACE/EPAM ions, e, He, O, Fe channels in SEPEM
                    • Raw ACE/SEPICA data in SEPEM
                    • Automated Multi Dataset Analysis (AMDA)
                       AMDA
                    0.03-1 MeV/nuc Ions
                    • Raw ACE/EPAM ions, e, He, O, Fe channels in SEPEM
                    • Raw ACE/SEPICA data in SEPEM
                    • Automated Multi Dataset Analysis (AMDA)
                       AMDA
                    2-50 MeV Solar Electrons
                    • Automated Multi Dataset Analysis (AMDA)
                       AMDA
                    30 keV-8 MeV Electrons
                    • Raw ACE/EPAM ions, e, He, O, Fe channels in SEPEM
                    • Automated Multi Dataset Analysis (AMDA)
                       AMDA
                    Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF)
                    • Automated Multi Dataset Analysis (AMDA)
                       AMDA
                    Solar Wind Bulk Velocity
                    • Archive - Solar wind model for Earth [WSA-Enlil]
                       HPARC
                    • Archive - Solar wind model for Earth [ESWF]
                       HPARC
                    • Automated Multi Dataset Analysis (AMDA)
                       AMDA
                    Solar Wind Bulk Density
                    • Archive - Solar wind model for Earth [WSA-Enlil]
                       HPARC
                    • Automated Multi Dataset Analysis (AMDA)
                       AMDA

                    Interplanetary Medium Outside L1: Data Archives

                    Solar Energetic Particle Events
                    • Rosetta/SREM radiation rates
                       SREM
                    • Herschel/SREM radiation rates
                       SREM
                    • Planck/SREM radiation rates
                       SREM
                    • HELIOS-A and HELIOS-B E6 and E7 datasets on SEDAT
                       SEDAT
                    • Rosetta/SREM dataset on SEDAT
                       SEDAT
                    • Herschel/SREM dataset on SEDAT
                       SEDAT
                    • Planck/SREM dataset on SEDAT
                       SEDAT
                    • Raw ACE/SEPICA data in SEPEM
                    • Automated Multi Dataset Analysis (AMDA)
                       AMDA
                    Interplanetary Medium Data
                    • Archive - Solar wind model for Mars [WSA-Enlil]
                       HPARC
                    • Archive - Solar wind model for Mercury [WSA-Enlil]
                       HPARC
                    • Archive - Solar wind model for Venus [WSA-Enlil]
                       HPARC
                    • Automated Multi Dataset Analysis (AMDA)
                       AMDA
                    • AMPTE-UKS dataset on SEDAT
                       SEDAT
                    • HELIOS-A and HELIOS-B E6 and E7 datasets on SEDAT
                       SEDAT

                    Magnetospheric Environment: Data Archives

                    Geomagnetic Storm Condition
                    • Swarm Polar Electrojet (PEJ)
                       SUA
                    • Swarm Field-Aligned Current (FAC)
                       SUA
                    Geomagnetic Indices Kp and K
                    • Kp - planetary three-hour magnetic index, archive
                       SGIArv
                    • Short term (1 hour) Kp forecast
                       TGO
                    • Kp and Ap index archive
                       GFZ
                    • Provisional AA indices
                    • Automated Multi Dataset Analysis (AMDA)
                       AMDA
                    • Kp, K, Ap, A, Dst archives on SEDAT
                       SEDAT
                    Geomagnetic Index Ap and A
                    • Ap - planetary daily magnetic index, archive
                       SGIArv
                    • 27 day global forecast issued every 24 hours
                       TGO
                    • Kp and Ap index archive
                       GFZ
                    • Automated Multi Dataset Analysis (AMDA)
                       AMDA
                    • Kp, K, Ap, A, Dst archives on SEDAT
                       SEDAT
                    Geomagnetic Index Dst
                    • Dst - Disturbance storm time Index, archive
                       SGIArv
                    • Automated Multi Dataset Analysis (AMDA)
                       AMDA
                    • Kp, K, Ap, A, Dst archives on SEDAT
                       SEDAT
                    High Energy >10 MeV Protons
                    • PROBA-V/EPT Proton flux spectra time series
                       EPT
                    • PROBA-1/SREM radiation rates
                       SREM
                    • Integral/SREM radiation rates
                       SREM
                    • Radiation environment at ISS orbit
                    • Radiation environment inside ISS
                    • AZUR/EI-88 dataset on SEDAT
                       SEDAT
                    • GOES/SEM-EPS datasets on SEDAT
                       SEDAT
                    • UARS/PEM-HEPS dataset on SEDAT
                       SEDAT
                    • PROBA-1/SREM dataset on SEDAT
                       SEDAT
                    • Integral/SREM dataset on SEDAT
                       SEDAT
                    • IMP-8/CPME and CRNC datasets on SEDAT
                       SEDAT
                    • MIR/REM dataset on SEDAT
                       SEDAT
                    • STRV1B/REM dataset on SEDAT
                       SEDAT
                    • XMM/ERMD dataset on SEDAT
                       SEDAT
                    • SEPEM Reference proton data set
                    • Cleaned GOES/SEM proton channels in SEPEM
                    High Energy >10 MeV/nuc Ions
                    • PROBA-V/EPT Helium flux spectra time series
                       EPT
                    • Radiation environment at ISS orbit
                    • Radiation environment inside ISS
                    • AZUR/EI-88 dataset on SEDAT
                       SEDAT
                    • GOES/SEM-EPS datasets on SEDAT
                       SEDAT
                    • METOP02/SEM2 dataset on SEDAT
                       SEDAT
                    • IMP-8/CPME and CRNC datasets on SEDAT
                       SEDAT
                    • POES/SEM-2 datasets on SEDAT
                       SEDAT
                    • Raw IMP8/CPME ion channels in SEPEM
                    1-10 MeV Protons
                    • AZUR/EI-88 dataset on SEDAT
                       SEDAT
                    • GOES/SEM-EPS datasets on SEDAT
                       SEDAT
                    • UARS/PEM-HEPS dataset on SEDAT
                       SEDAT
                    • IMP-8/CPME and CRNC datasets on SEDAT
                       SEDAT
                    • XMM/ERMD dataset on SEDAT
                       SEDAT
                    • SEPEM Reference proton data set
                    • Cleaned GOES/SEM proton channels in SEPEM
                    • Automated Multi Dataset Analysis (AMDA)
                       AMDA
                    1-10 MeV/nuc Ions
                    • AZUR/EI-88 dataset on SEDAT
                       SEDAT
                    • GOES/SEM-EPS datasets on SEDAT
                       SEDAT
                    • IMP-8/CPME and CRNC datasets on SEDAT
                       SEDAT
                    • Raw IMP8/CPME ion channels in SEPEM
                    0.03-1 MeV/nuc Ions
                    • METOP02/SEM2 dataset on SEDAT
                       SEDAT
                    • Equator_S/EPI dataset on SEDAT
                       SEDAT
                    • ISEE1/MEPI dataset on SEDAT
                       SEDAT
                    • POES/SEM-2 datasets on SEDAT
                       SEDAT
                    • Automated Multi Dataset Analysis (AMDA)
                       AMDA
                    30 keV-8 MeV Electrons
                    • PROBA-V/EPT Electron flux spectra time series
                       EPT
                    • PROBA-1/SREM radiation rates
                       SREM
                    • Integral/SREM radiation rates
                       SREM
                    • GOES/SEM-EPS datasets on SEDAT
                       SEDAT
                    • Meteosat-3/SEM2 dataset on SEDAT
                       SEDAT
                    • METOP02/SEM2 dataset on SEDAT
                       SEDAT
                    • CRRES/MEA dataset on SEDAT
                       SEDAT
                    • Equator_S/EPI dataset on SEDAT
                       SEDAT
                    • PROBA-1/SREM dataset on SEDAT
                       SEDAT
                    • Integral/SREM dataset on SEDAT
                       SEDAT
                    • IMP-8/CPME and CRNC datasets on SEDAT
                       SEDAT
                    • ISEE1/MEPI dataset on SEDAT
                       SEDAT
                    • ISEE1/KED dataset on SEDAT
                       SEDAT
                    • MIR/REM dataset on SEDAT
                       SEDAT
                    • STRV1B/REM dataset on SEDAT
                       SEDAT
                    • POES/SEM-2 datasets on SEDAT
                       SEDAT
                    • XMM/ERMD dataset on SEDAT
                       SEDAT
                    • Raw IMP8/CPME electron channels in SEPEM
                    • Automated Multi Dataset Analysis (AMDA)
                       AMDA
                    Thermal and Supra-thermal Electron and Ion Energy Spectra
                    • GORIZONT/ADIPE Spacecraft charging dataset
                    • CRRES/LEPA Spacecraft charging dataset
                    • Automated Multi Dataset Analysis (AMDA)
                       AMDA
                    Thermal Ions Density and Temperature
                    • Automated Multi Dataset Analysis (AMDA)
                       AMDA

                    Magnetospheric Environment: (Near) Realtime Measurements

                    Plasma Drift Velocity

                      Thermospheric and Atmospheric Conditions: Data Archives

                      Local External Magnetic Field on Ground

                        Spacecraft Effects and Anomalies: Data Archives

                        Anomalies on Spacecraft Equipment
                          Orbital Data of Spacecraft Carrying Space Weather Instruments

                            Spacecraft Effects and Anomalies: (Near) Realtime Measurements

                            Spacecraft Radiation Monitors
                            • Radiation environment at ISS orbit
                            • Radiation environment inside ISS
                            • PROBA-1/SREM radiation rates
                               SREM
                            • Integral/SREM radiation rates
                               SREM
                            • PROBA-1/SREM dataset on SEDAT
                               SEDAT
                            • Integral/SREM dataset on SEDAT
                               SEDAT
                            Spacecraft Housekeeping Telemetry

                              SPENVIS (Space Environment Information System) is a web-based interface for assessing the space environment and its effects on spacecraft systems and crews. The system is used for mission analysis and planning. SPENVIS includes several empirical models of the space environment covering mainly cosmic rays, solar energetic particles, the natural radiation belts, magnetic fields, space plasmas and the upper atmosphere. A range of engineering models are also available to help assess the effects of the space environment on spacecraft such as surface and internal charging, energy deposition, solar cell damage and SEU rates. Usually these later models take their inputs from the empirical models present in SPENVIS. The system also includes extensive background information on the space environment, the environment models and the related standards.

                              SEPEM (Solar Energetic Particle Environment Modelling) is a WWW interface to solar energetic particle data and a range of modelling tools and functionalities intended to support space mission design. The system provides an implementation of several well known modelling methodologies, built on cleaned datasets. It also gives the user increased flexibility in his/her analysis and allows generation of mission integrated fluence statistics, peak flux statistics and other functionalities. It also integrates effects tools that calculate single event upset rates and radiation doses for a variety of scenarios.

                              SWE Data is a web application that provides access to a wide range of Space Weather related data sources covering the areas of the spacecraft, ionospheric, and ground effects. SWE Data allows the user to access all data contained in the repository providing analysis and visualisation tools from these disparate sources.

                              The AMDA system provides an archive of planetary, solar wind, Earth magnetosphere and ionosphere mission and ground based products. In addition it supports a range of standard models such as magnetic footprints, magnetic fields, solar wind propagation to planets and probes as well as access to external databases of observations and simulations. A key functionality of the system is its embedded plotting, data mining and cataloguing functionalities which are extremely useful in relation to posteriori analysis.

                              No alerts are associated with this service.

                              This section provides links to web pages or resources that are not part of the SSA Space Weather Network or esa.int domain.  These sites are not under ESA control, and therefore ESA is not responsible for any of the information or links that you may find there. 

                              Reference documents

                              • ECSS-E-ST-10-04C Space environment (15 November 2008)
                              • ECSS-E-ST-10-12C Method for the calculation of radiation received and its effects, and a policy for design margins (issued on 15 November 2008)
                              • ECSS-E-HB-10-12A Calculation of radiation and its effects and margin policy handbook (issued on 17 December 2010)