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Human Spaceflight - In-flight crew radiation exposure


The proton flux between 61 and 92 MeV
as measured by PROBA-V/EPT at LEO

The service "Human Spaceflight: In-flight crew radiation exposure" aims to provide information which can be used to help estimate in-flight radiation dose. Radiation environments considered include Earth's radiation belts, galactic cosmic rays, and solar energetic particles. This service is made possible by providing measurements and estimates of current local area radiation fluxes combined with spacecraft and human phantom shielding geometry models, as well as onboard passive or active dosimeter data (e.g. thermoluminescent dosimeters [TLDs], tissue equivalent proportional counters [TEPCs]). The service is intended for personnel involved in monitoring the radiation environment during crewed space missions.

This service is implemented through a combination of products, tools and alerts which can be found through the following tabs along with expert support provided by the teams constituting the SWE Network. Should you require further guidance in the use of this service, or have specific questions about any aspects of the service presented here, don't hesitate to contact the Helpdesk.

A number of models and in-orbit sensor datasets are provided with the help of products and tools such as:

  • the RadSpace products providing information on the radiation environment and accumulated dose in human phantoms at ISS resulting from dedicated measurement campaigns;
  • measurements and derived data products from the Energetic Particle Telescope (EPT) on PROBA-V;
  • measurements and derived data products from the Standard Radiation Environment Monitors (SREM) on Proba-1, Integral, Rosetta, Herschel and Planck;
  • the Space Weather Data Browsing and Analysis (SWE Data) is a web application that provides access to space weather environment data.

This service page is curated by the ESC Space Radiation. For further information, please contact SSCC Help-desk.

Particle radiation in the form of Solar Energetic Particles and Galactic Cosmic Rays is considered the main hazard for human spaceflight, specifically when considering a potential return trip to the Moon or interplanetary travel in general. Even at Low Earth Orbit (LEO) like the International Space Station, particle radiation poses a risk as energetic particles can penetrate deep into the magnetosphere, in particular in the polar regions. Furthermore, spacecraft passing the Van Allen radiation belts need to take into account the increased radiation levels in these regions. Monitoring the space environment in (near-) real-time to evaluate the possible health effects of space particle radiation on humans is therefore necessary. This includes space environment data (e.g. particle radiation, solar X-ray and UV observations) and dose measurements.

The RadSpace products provide information on the radiation environment at the International Space Station (ISS) which can be harmful to the health of the ISS crewmembers. The data from the DOSIS and DOSIS 3D projects map the radiation environment inside the Columbus Laboratory based on passive and active radiation detectors.

Energetic particle flux measurements (electrons, protons and helium) from the Energetic Particle Telescope (EPT) on board PROBA-V at LEO can be accessed from the Products tab. A number of other particle radiation measurements are available through the Space Environment Data System (SEDAT) as well, although this tool is focussed on engineering analysis. Note that the particle fluxes need to be properly propagated through the Earth's magnetosphere if the user is interested in knowing the flux at a different altitude other than where the measurements were taken.

Measurements and detection of solar flares and coronal mass ejections are provided by the Solar Influences Data Analysis Center (SIDC) and the Kanzelhöhe Observatory (KSO).

A large set of measurements can also be accessed through the Space Weather Data Browsing and Analysis (SWE Data) web interface.

For further information, please contact SSCC Help-desk

Solar Activity: (Near-) Real-time Measurements

Solar Disc Magnetic Fields
    10.7cm Solar Radio Flux (F10.7)
      EUV Images of Sun
      • Proba2/SWAP Latest level 0 quicklook image
      • Proba2/SWAP Latest media level image
      • SDO/AIA Latest Solar EUV images
      • SDO/AIA Latest 24h movie of Solar EUV images
      White Light Solar Imaging
      • INAF/OACT Latest white light Solar images
      • UGraz/KSO Latest white light Solar images
      • SIDC/USET Latest white light Solar images
      Soft X-ray Images of the Sun
        Solar EUV Images Outside of Sun-Earth Line
          Solar Coronagraphic Images Outside of Sun-Earth Line
            White-light wide-angle Coronagraph Images
              Solar X-ray Flux
              • GOES/SEM X-Ray Sensor datasets on SEDAT
                 SEDAT
              Solar EUV Integrated Flux
              • Proba2/LYRA Latest data
              • Proba2/LYRA Rescaled latest data
              Solar UV Flux

              Solar Activity: Nowcasts

              Solar Flares
              • UGraz/KSO Latest Solar flare detections
              • SIDC Latest daily space weather bulletin
              CMEs
              • SIDC Latest daily space weather bulletin
              • SIDC/CACTus Automated near-real-time CME detection
              Coronal Holes
              • SIDC Latest daily space weather bulletin
              Solar Disc Magnetic Fields
                International Sunspot number
                • SIDC/SILSO International sunspot number
                • EISN_SIDC
                   FORIND
                10.7cm Solar Radio Flux (F10.7)
                  Solar EUV Index (S10.7)
                    Solar EUV Index (E10.7)
                      Solar FUV Index (M10.7)
                        Solar X-ray & UV Index (Y10.7)
                          Ionospheric Index (IG12)
                            EUV Images of Sun
                            • Proba2/SWAP Latest active region annotated image
                            White Light Solar Imaging
                              Soft X-ray Images of the Sun
                                Solar EUV Images Outside of Sun-Earth Line
                                  Solar Coronagraphic Images Outside of Sun-Earth Line
                                    White-light wide-angle Coronagraph Images
                                      Solar X-ray Flux
                                      • Proba2/LYRA Rescaled latest data
                                      Solar EUV Integrated Flux
                                        Solar UV Flux

                                          Interplanetary Medium at L1: (Near-) Real-time Measurements

                                          High Energy >10 MeV Protons
                                            High Energy >10 MeV/nuc Ions
                                            • ACE/SIS dataset on SEDAT
                                               SEDAT
                                            1-10 MeV Protons
                                              1-10 MeV/nuc Ions
                                                0.03-1 MeV/nuc Ions
                                                  2-50 MeV Solar Electrons
                                                    30 keV-8 MeV Electrons
                                                      Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF)
                                                        Solar Wind Bulk Velocity
                                                          Solar Wind Bulk Density

                                                            Interplanetary Medium at L1: Nowcasts

                                                            High Energy >10 MeV Protons
                                                            • Near-Earth NRT energetic particles (GOES)
                                                               SEP/E
                                                            High Energy >10 MeV/nuc Ions
                                                              1-10 MeV Protons
                                                                1-10 MeV/nuc Ions
                                                                  0.03-1 MeV/nuc Ions
                                                                    2-50 MeV Solar Electrons
                                                                      30 keV-8 MeV Electrons
                                                                        Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF)
                                                                        • Near-Earth NRT solar wind (DSCOVR)
                                                                           SW/L1
                                                                        • IMF_SWPC_nowcast_1h
                                                                           FORIND
                                                                        • IMF_SWPC_nowcast_1m
                                                                           FORIND
                                                                        Solar Wind Bulk Velocity
                                                                        • SIDC Latest daily space weather bulletin
                                                                        • Near-Earth NRT solar wind (DSCOVR)
                                                                           SW/L1
                                                                        Solar Wind Bulk Density
                                                                        • Near-Earth NRT solar wind (DSCOVR)
                                                                           SW/L1

                                                                        Interplanetary Medium Outside L1: (Near-) Real-time Measurements

                                                                        Solar Energetic Particle Events
                                                                          Interplanetary Medium Data

                                                                            Interplanetary Medium Outside L1: Nowcasts

                                                                            Solar Energetic Particle Events
                                                                            • SIDC Latest daily space weather bulletin
                                                                            Interplanetary Medium Data
                                                                            • Automated WARnings of STEREO-A arrivals

                                                                            Magnetospheric Environment: (Near-) Real-time Measurements

                                                                            High Energy >10 MeV Protons
                                                                            • PROBA-V/EPT Proton flux spectra time series
                                                                               EPT
                                                                            • PROBA-1/SREM radiation rates
                                                                               SREM
                                                                            • Integral/SREM radiation rates
                                                                               SREM
                                                                            • GOES/SEM-EPS datasets on SEDAT
                                                                               SEDAT
                                                                            • PROBA-1/SREM dataset on SEDAT
                                                                               SEDAT
                                                                            • Integral/SREM dataset on SEDAT
                                                                               SEDAT
                                                                            High Energy >10 MeV/nuc Ions
                                                                            • PROBA-V/EPT Helium flux spectra time series
                                                                               EPT
                                                                            • GOES/SEM-EPS datasets on SEDAT
                                                                               SEDAT
                                                                            • POES/SEM-2 dataset on SEDAT
                                                                               SEDAT
                                                                            1-10 MeV Protons
                                                                            • GOES/SEM-EPS datasets on SEDAT
                                                                               SEDAT
                                                                            1-10 MeV/nuc Ions
                                                                            • GOES/SEM-EPS datasets on SEDAT
                                                                               SEDAT
                                                                            0.03-1 MeV/nuc Ions
                                                                            • POES/SEM-2 dataset on SEDAT
                                                                               SEDAT
                                                                            30 keV-8 MeV Electrons
                                                                            • PROBA-V/EPT Electron flux spectra time series
                                                                               EPT
                                                                            • PROBA-1/SREM radiation rates
                                                                               SREM
                                                                            • Integral/SREM radiation rates
                                                                               SREM
                                                                            • GOES/SEM-EPS datasets on SEDAT
                                                                               SEDAT
                                                                            • PROBA-1/SREM dataset on SEDAT
                                                                               SEDAT
                                                                            • Integral/SREM dataset on SEDAT
                                                                               SEDAT
                                                                            • POES/SEM-2 dataset on SEDAT
                                                                               SEDAT
                                                                            Thermal and Supra-thermal Electron and Ion Energy Spectra
                                                                              Thermal Ions Density and Temperature
                                                                                Plasma Drift Velocity

                                                                                  Magnetospheric Environment: Nowcasts

                                                                                  Geomagnetic Storm Condition
                                                                                  • Swarm Polar Electrojet (PEJ)
                                                                                     SUA
                                                                                  Geomagnetic Indices Kp and K
                                                                                  • SIDC Latest daily space weather bulletin
                                                                                  • Provisional K-indices from Northwest Europe
                                                                                     TGO
                                                                                  • Quicklook Kp index
                                                                                     GFZ
                                                                                  • Kp and Ap index on tabular form
                                                                                     GFZ
                                                                                  • Kp_GFZ_nowcast
                                                                                     FORIND
                                                                                  • Kp_NMH_nowcast
                                                                                     FORIND
                                                                                  • Provisional K-indices from Northwest Europe
                                                                                     TGO
                                                                                  Geomagnetic Index Ap and A
                                                                                  • SIDC Latest daily space weather bulletin
                                                                                  • Kp and Ap index on tabular form
                                                                                     GFZ
                                                                                  • ap_NMH_nowcast
                                                                                     FORIND
                                                                                  • ap_GFZ_nowcast
                                                                                     FORIND
                                                                                  • Ap_NMH_nowcast
                                                                                     FORIND
                                                                                  • Ap_SWPC_nowcast_geomag
                                                                                     FORIND
                                                                                  • Ap_GFZ_nowcast
                                                                                     FORIND
                                                                                  Geomagnetic Index Dst
                                                                                  • UAH-SWE Subscription
                                                                                     UAH
                                                                                  • DST_nowcast
                                                                                     FORIND
                                                                                  High Energy >10 MeV Protons
                                                                                    High Energy >10 MeV/nuc Ions
                                                                                      1-10 MeV Protons
                                                                                        1-10 MeV/nuc Ions
                                                                                          0.03-1 MeV/nuc Ions
                                                                                            30 keV-8 MeV Electrons
                                                                                            • Near-Earth NRT energetic particles (GOES)
                                                                                               SEP/E
                                                                                            Thermal and Supra-thermal Electron and Ion Energy Spectra
                                                                                              Thermal Ions Density and Temperature

                                                                                                Thermospheric and Atmospheric Conditions: (Near-) Real-time Measurements

                                                                                                Local External Magnetic Field on Ground
                                                                                                • Magnetogrammes from North(west) Europe and Greenland
                                                                                                   TGO
                                                                                                • Real-time and historic geomagnetic activity plots and data files for geomagnetic surveying (total field)
                                                                                                   RESOSS
                                                                                                • Real-time and historic geomagnetic activity plots and data files for directional drilling (total field, declination and inclination)
                                                                                                   RESOSS

                                                                                                Thermospheric and Atmospheric Conditions: Nowcasts

                                                                                                Local External Magnetic Field on Ground
                                                                                                • Magnetogrammes from North(west) Europe and Greenland
                                                                                                   TGO
                                                                                                • LDiñ
                                                                                                   UAH
                                                                                                • LCiñ
                                                                                                   UAH
                                                                                                • Real-time and historic geomagnetic activity plots and data files for geomagnetic surveying (total field)
                                                                                                   RESOSS
                                                                                                • Real-time and historic geomagnetic activity plots and data files for directional drilling (total field, declination and inclination)
                                                                                                   RESOSS

                                                                                                Spacecraft Effects and Anomolies: Data Archives

                                                                                                Anomalies on Spacecraft Equipment

                                                                                                  Spacecraft Effects and Anomolies: (Near-) Real-time Measurements

                                                                                                  Spacecraft Radiation Monitors
                                                                                                  • Radiation environment inside ISS
                                                                                                  • PROBA-1/SREM radiation rates
                                                                                                     SREM
                                                                                                  • Integral/SREM radiation rates
                                                                                                     SREM
                                                                                                  • PROBA-1/SREM dataset on SEDAT
                                                                                                     SEDAT
                                                                                                  • Integral/SREM dataset on SEDAT
                                                                                                     SEDAT
                                                                                                  Spacecraft Housekeeping Telemetry

                                                                                                    Spacecraft Effects and Anomolies: Models and Reconstruction

                                                                                                    Anomalies on Spacecraft Equipment
                                                                                                    • SPENVIS Short-term SEU rates and LET spectra
                                                                                                    • SPENVIS Long-term SEUs and LET spectra
                                                                                                    • SPENVIS Particle/wall interaction models

                                                                                                    Spacecraft Effects and Anomolies: Nowcasts

                                                                                                    Orbital Data of Spacecraft Carrying Space Weather Instruments

                                                                                                      The AMDA system provides an archive of planetary, solar wind, Earth magnetosphere and ionosphere mission and ground based products. In addition it supports a range of standard models such as magnetic footprints, magnetic fields, solar wind propagation to planets and probes as well as access to external databases of observations and simulations. A key functionality of the system is its embedded plotting, data mining and cataloguing functionalities which are extremely useful in relation to posteriori analysis.

                                                                                                      Solar Flare Detection

                                                                                                      UGraz/KSO Latest Solar flare alert

                                                                                                      SIDC Latest Solar GOES-flare alert

                                                                                                      SIDC Latest human moderated alert

                                                                                                      Solar Flare Detection and Location

                                                                                                      UGraz/KSO Latest Solar flare alert

                                                                                                      CME Onset

                                                                                                      SIDC/CACTus Latest automated halo CME alert

                                                                                                      Near-Earth CME arrival predictions (WSA-Enlil + Ensemble)

                                                                                                      No preview available

                                                                                                      Halo CME Onset

                                                                                                      SIDC/CACTus Latest automated halo CME alert

                                                                                                      SIDC Latest human moderated alert

                                                                                                      CIR Alert

                                                                                                      SIDC Latest human moderated alert

                                                                                                      Archive - Automated NRT Near Earth Alerts [AWARE]

                                                                                                      No preview available

                                                                                                      Automated WARnings of Earth arrivals

                                                                                                       AWARE

                                                                                                      Solar Particle Event Onset

                                                                                                      SIDC Latest human moderated alert

                                                                                                      Ground Level Enhancement Detection

                                                                                                      GLE alert+

                                                                                                       ANeMoS

                                                                                                      This section provides links to web pages or resources that are not part of the SSA Space Weather Network or esa.int domain.  These sites are not under ESA control, and therefore ESA is not responsible for any of the information or links that you may find there. 

                                                                                                      Reference documents

                                                                                                      • Directive 2013/59/Euratom Basic safety standards for protection against the dangers arising from exposure to ionising radiation.
                                                                                                      • ECSS-E-ST-10-04C Space environment (15 November 2008)
                                                                                                      • ECSS-E-ST-10-12C Method for the calculation of radiation received and its effects, and a policy for design margins (issued on 15 November 2008)
                                                                                                      • ECSS-E-HB-10-12A Calculation of radiation and its effects and margin policy handbook (issued on 17 December 2010)