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Spacecraft Design - In orbit verification


The weekly averaged electron flux spectrum
as measured by PROBA-V/EPT at LEO

The service "Spacecraft Design - In orbit verification" aims to provide a best estimate of the local environment that has been experienced by a spacecraft either through measurements or reconstruction for in-flight validation of environment specifications (i.e. ionising radiation, plasma, microparticles, atmosphere, and UV) and consequent effects (e.g. dose, single event upset, sensor background, cumulated charge, spacecraft anomalies, microparticle impacts).

This service is implemented through a combination of products and tools which can be found through the following tabs along with expert support provided by the teams constituting the SWE Network. Should you require further guidance in the use of this service, or have specific questions about any aspects of the service presented here, don't hesitate to contact the Helpdesk.

A set of models and in-orbit sensor datasets are provided with the help of tools and products such as:

  • the Space Environment Information System (SPENVIS) coupling several empirical and engineering models of the space environment and its effects on spacecraft or components based on a mission planning;
  • the Space Environment Data System (SEDAT) allows engineering analyses to be carried out on datasets related to the spacecraft charged particle environments;
  • the Solar Energetic Particle Environment Modelling application (SEPEM) allowing solar energetic particle statistical analyses on an extended set of cross-calibrated data;
  • the European Debris Impact Database (EDID) provides data processing and dissemination functions for measurements from European debris and meteoroid impact detectors;
  • the Space Research Laboratory Solar Energetic Particles (UTU-SEP) products provide access to a high energy SEP event list as well as the calculation of the expected high energy proton fluence and worst-case proton flux for a specific mission length due to SEPs;
  • measurements and derived data products from the Energetic Particle Telescope (EPT) on PROBA-V;
  • measurements and derived data products from the Standard Radiation Environment Monitors (SREM) on Proba-1, Integral, Rosetta, Herschel and Planck;
  • the electron population model from Mullard Space Science Laboratory (MSSL) for LEO, MEO and GEO as function of solar wind speed and Kp index;
  • the SWIFF Plasmasphere Model (SPM) dynamical simulation provides the number density and temperatures of the electrons as a function of time;
  • the Space Weather Data Browsing and Analysis (SWE Data) provides access to space weather environment data.

This service page is curated by the ESC Space Radiation.  For further information, please contact SSCC Help-desk

Spacecraft need to be able to withstand the effects that the multitude range of phenomena (e.g. solar flares, coronal mass ejections, solar energetic particle events) in the dynamic space environment may have on technology. The goal of spacecraft radiation shielding is to protect the crew and hardware (exterior and interior) from the radiation environment encountered in space. When designing and building a spacecraft both short- and long-term cumulative effects must be considered. The development and improvement of models providing environment specifications and effects predictions is an important aspect in advancing the design of future efficient shielding. A number of tools and products can be used to generated the environment specifications which can then be compared with the available measurement data.

The minimum environmental standards as defined in the Space Environment Standard ECSS-E-ST-10-04 (see Auxiliary Info) are implemented in the Space Environment Information System (SPENVIS) tool. The space environment for a specific orbit can be obtained based on these and other models in order to compare them with observations. Both the model outputs and measurements can be used to evaluate the various effects on the specific hardware defined by the user.

Other models that can be accessed through the portal are: the UTU-SEP products comprising a high energy SEP event list, and high energy proton fluence and peak flux models for a specific mission length due to SEPs; the MSSL electron population model at MEO and GEO as function of solar wind speed and Kp index; and the SPM dynamical simulation providing the number density and temperatures of electrons in the plasmasphere as a function of time and Kp index.

Specific particle radiation data provided through the network are based on the measurements from the Energetic Particle Telescope (EPT) on PROBA-V, and from the Standard Radiation Environment Monitors (SREM) on Proba-1, Integral, Rosetta, Herschel and Planck. Time series of the energetic electron, proton and helium fluxes as measured by EPT are available, as well as weekly geographical flux maps for each particle species and energy channel. Weekly energy spectra are provided for auroral electrons as well as proton and helium in the South Atlantic Anomaly. Daily radiation situation reports based on the SREM data in several key regions along the orbit of the various spacecraft are provided. Daily measurements of particle radiation levels and spectra are compared with reference models for the proton and electron belts, the slot region, and interplanetary space.

Furthermore, the SEDAT (Space Environment DATa system) tool allows a wide range of engineering analyses to be carried out using a comprehensive set of in-situ space environment datasets. The flexibility of the tool authorises the tailoring of the data processing to the problem under study and the incorporation of new datasets.

When interested in the impact of microparticles, the European Debris Impact Database (EDID) could be accessed which has a large database of events measured from debris and meteoroid impact detectors together with includes spacecraft housekeeping data.

The user who is interested in an overview of the typical programmatic concerns related to the space environment is invited to visit the service page for "Spacecraft Design - Environment specification: data archive".

For further information, please contact SSCC Help-desk

Solar Activity: Data Archives

Solar X-ray Flux
  • Proba2/LYRA Rescaled data archive
  • GOES/SEM X-Ray Sensor datasets on SEDAT
     SEDAT
Solar EUV Integrated Flux
  • Proba2/LYRA Data archive
  • Proba2/LYRA Rescaled data archive
Solar UV Flux

Solar Activity: (Near-) Real-time Measurements

Solar EUV Integrated Flux
  • Proba2/LYRA Latest data
  • Proba2/LYRA Rescaled latest data
Solar UV Flux

Solar Activity: Models and Reconstruction

Solar X-ray Flux
    Solar EUV Integrated Flux
      Solar UV Flux

        Interplanetary Medium at L1: Data Archives

        High Energy >10 MeV Protons
        • Automated Multi Dataset Analysis (AMDA)
           AMDA
        High Energy >10 MeV/nuc Ions
        • Automated Multi Dataset Analysis (AMDA)
           AMDA
        • ACE/SIS dataset on SEDAT
           SEDAT
        • Raw ACE/EPAM ions, e, He, O, Fe channels in SEPEM
        • Raw ACE/SIS data in SEPEM
        1-10 MeV Protons
        • Automated Multi Dataset Analysis (AMDA)
           AMDA
        • Raw ACE/SEPICA data in SEPEM
        1-10 MeV/nuc Ions
        • Automated Multi Dataset Analysis (AMDA)
           AMDA
        • Raw ACE/EPAM ions, e, He, O, Fe channels in SEPEM
        • Raw ACE/SEPICA data in SEPEM
        0.03-1 MeV/nuc Ions
        • Automated Multi Dataset Analysis (AMDA)
           AMDA
        • Raw ACE/EPAM ions, e, He, O, Fe channels in SEPEM
        • Raw ACE/SEPICA data in SEPEM
        2-50 MeV Solar Electrons
        • Automated Multi Dataset Analysis (AMDA)
           AMDA
        30 keV-8 MeV Electrons
        • Automated Multi Dataset Analysis (AMDA)
           AMDA
        • Raw ACE/EPAM ions, e, He, O, Fe channels in SEPEM

        Interplanetary Medium at L1: (Near-) Real-time Measurements

        High Energy >10 MeV Protons
          High Energy >10 MeV/nuc Ions
          • ACE/SIS dataset on SEDAT
             SEDAT
          1-10 MeV Protons
            1-10 MeV/nuc Ions
              0.03-1 MeV/nuc Ions
                2-50 MeV Solar Electrons
                  30 keV-8 MeV Electrons

                    Interplanetary Medium at L1: Models and Reconstruction

                    High Energy >10 MeV Protons
                    • SPENVIS Short-term solar particle models
                    • SPENVIS Long-term solar particle models
                    • SPENVIS Galactic cosmic ray models
                    • Very high-energy solar energetic proton fluence
                    • Very high-energy solar energetic proton peak flux
                    • Solar very high-energy particle event catalogue
                    • Statistical long-term plasma products - L1 p>10MeV
                    • Automated Multi Dataset Analysis (AMDA)
                       AMDA
                    High Energy >10 MeV/nuc Ions
                    • SPENVIS Short-term solar particle models
                    • SPENVIS Long-term solar particle models
                    • SPENVIS Galactic cosmic ray models
                    • Automated Multi Dataset Analysis (AMDA)
                       AMDA
                    1-10 MeV Protons
                    • SPENVIS Galactic cosmic ray models
                    • Automated Multi Dataset Analysis (AMDA)
                       AMDA
                    1-10 MeV/nuc Ions
                    • SPENVIS Galactic cosmic ray models
                    • Automated Multi Dataset Analysis (AMDA)
                       AMDA
                    0.03-1 MeV/nuc Ions
                    • Automated Multi Dataset Analysis (AMDA)
                       AMDA
                    2-50 MeV Solar Electrons
                    • Automated Multi Dataset Analysis (AMDA)
                       AMDA
                    30 keV-8 MeV Electrons
                    • Automated Multi Dataset Analysis (AMDA)
                       AMDA

                    Interplanetary Medium Outside L1: Data Archives

                    Solar Energetic Particle Events
                    • Rosetta/SREM radiation rates
                       SREM
                    • Herschel/SREM radiation rates
                       SREM
                    • Planck/SREM radiation rates
                       SREM
                    • Automated Multi Dataset Analysis (AMDA)
                       AMDA
                    • HELIOS-A and HELIOS-B E6 and E7 datasets on SEDAT
                       SEDAT
                    • Rosetta/SREM dataset on SEDAT
                       SEDAT
                    • Herschel/SREM dataset on SEDAT
                       SEDAT
                    • Planck/SREM dataset on SEDAT
                       SEDAT
                    • Raw ACE/SIS data in SEPEM
                    Interplanetary Medium Data
                    • Archive - Solar wind model for Mars [WSA-Enlil]
                    • Archive - Solar wind model for Mercury [WSA-Enlil]
                    • Archive - Solar wind model for Venus [WSA-Enlil]
                    • Automated Multi Dataset Analysis (AMDA)
                       AMDA
                    • AMPTE-UKS dataset on SEDAT
                       SEDAT
                    • HELIOS-A and HELIOS-B E6 and E7 datasets on SEDAT
                       SEDAT

                    Interplanetary Medium Outside L1: (Near-) Real-time Measurements

                    Solar Energetic Particle Events
                      Interplanetary Medium Data

                        Interplanetary Medium Outside L1: Models and Reconstruction

                        Solar Energetic Particle Events
                        • Automated Multi Dataset Analysis (AMDA)
                           AMDA
                        Interplanetary Medium Data
                        • Automated Multi Dataset Analysis (AMDA)
                           AMDA

                        Magnetospheric Environment: Data Archives

                        Geomagnetic Storm Condition
                        • Swarm Polar Electrojet (PEJ)
                           SUA
                        • Swarm Field-Aligned Current (FAC)
                           SUA
                        Geomagnetic Indices Kp and K
                        • Kp - planetary three-hour magnetic index, archive
                           SGIArv
                        • SGIArv
                           SGIArv
                        • Short term (1 hour) Kp forecast
                           TGO
                        • Kp and Ap index archive
                           GFZ
                        • Forecast of Kp archive
                           IRF
                        • Provisional AA indices
                        • Automated Multi Dataset Analysis (AMDA)
                           AMDA
                        • Kp, K, Ap, A, Dst archives on SEDAT
                           SEDAT
                        High Energy >10 MeV Protons
                        • PROBA-V/EPT Proton flux spectra time series
                           EPT
                        • PROBA-1/SREM radiation rates
                           SREM
                        • Integral/SREM radiation rates
                           SREM
                        • AZUR/EI-88 dataset on SEDAT
                           SEDAT
                        • GOES/SEM-EPS datasets on SEDAT
                           SEDAT
                        • UARS/PEM-HEPS dataset on SEDAT
                           SEDAT
                        • PROBA-1/SREM dataset on SEDAT
                           SEDAT
                        • Integral/SREM dataset on SEDAT
                           SEDAT
                        • IMP-8/CPME and CRNC datasets on SEDAT
                           SEDAT
                        • MIR/REM dataset on SEDAT
                           SEDAT
                        • STRV1B/REM dataset on SEDAT
                           SEDAT
                        • XMM/ERMD dataset on SEDAT
                           SEDAT
                        • SEPEM Reference proton data set
                        • Cleaned GOES/SEM proton channels in SEPEM
                        High Energy >10 MeV/nuc Ions
                        • PROBA-V/EPT Helium flux spectra time series
                           EPT
                        • AZUR/EI-88 dataset on SEDAT
                           SEDAT
                        • GOES/SEM-EPS datasets on SEDAT
                           SEDAT
                        • METOP02/SEM2 dataset on SEDAT
                           SEDAT
                        • IMP-8/CPME and CRNC datasets on SEDAT
                           SEDAT
                        • POES/SEM-2 datasets on SEDAT
                           SEDAT
                        • Raw IMP8/CPME ion channels in SEPEM
                        1-10 MeV Protons
                        • Automated Multi Dataset Analysis (AMDA)
                           AMDA
                        • AZUR/EI-88 dataset on SEDAT
                           SEDAT
                        • GOES/SEM-EPS datasets on SEDAT
                           SEDAT
                        • UARS/PEM-HEPS dataset on SEDAT
                           SEDAT
                        • IMP-8/CPME and CRNC datasets on SEDAT
                           SEDAT
                        • XMM/ERMD dataset on SEDAT
                           SEDAT
                        • SEPEM Reference proton data set
                        • Cleaned GOES/SEM proton channels in SEPEM
                        1-10 MeV/nuc Ions
                        • AZUR/EI-88 dataset on SEDAT
                           SEDAT
                        • GOES/SEM-EPS datasets on SEDAT
                           SEDAT
                        • IMP-8/CPME and CRNC datasets on SEDAT
                           SEDAT
                        • Raw IMP8/CPME ion channels in SEPEM
                        0.03-1 MeV/nuc Ions
                        • Automated Multi Dataset Analysis (AMDA)
                           AMDA
                        • METOP02/SEM2 dataset on SEDAT
                           SEDAT
                        • Equator_S/EPI dataset on SEDAT
                           SEDAT
                        • ISEE1/MEPI dataset on SEDAT
                           SEDAT
                        • POES/SEM-2 datasets on SEDAT
                           SEDAT
                        30 keV-8 MeV Electrons
                        • PROBA-V/EPT Electron flux spectra time series
                           EPT
                        • PROBA-1/SREM radiation rates
                           SREM
                        • Integral/SREM radiation rates
                           SREM
                        • Automated Multi Dataset Analysis (AMDA)
                           AMDA
                        • GOES/SEM-EPS datasets on SEDAT
                           SEDAT
                        • Meteosat-3/SEM2 dataset on SEDAT
                           SEDAT
                        • METOP02/SEM2 dataset on SEDAT
                           SEDAT
                        • CRRES/MEA dataset on SEDAT
                           SEDAT
                        • Equator_S/EPI dataset on SEDAT
                           SEDAT
                        • PROBA-1/SREM dataset on SEDAT
                           SEDAT
                        • Integral/SREM dataset on SEDAT
                           SEDAT
                        • IMP-8/CPME and CRNC datasets on SEDAT
                           SEDAT
                        • ISEE1/MEPI dataset on SEDAT
                           SEDAT
                        • ISEE1/KED dataset on SEDAT
                           SEDAT
                        • MIR/REM dataset on SEDAT
                           SEDAT
                        • STRV1B/REM dataset on SEDAT
                           SEDAT
                        • POES/SEM-2 datasets on SEDAT
                           SEDAT
                        • XMM/ERMD dataset on SEDAT
                           SEDAT
                        • Raw IMP8/CPME electron channels in SEPEM
                        Thermal and Supra-thermal Electron and Ion Energy Spectra
                        • GORIZONT/ADIPE Spacecraft charging dataset
                        • CRRES/LEPA Spacecraft charging dataset
                        • Automated Multi Dataset Analysis (AMDA)
                           AMDA
                        Thermal Ions Density and Temperature
                        • Automated Multi Dataset Analysis (AMDA)
                           AMDA

                        Magnetospheric Environment: (Near-) Real-time Measurements

                        High Energy >10 MeV Protons
                        • PROBA-V/EPT Proton flux spectra time series
                           EPT
                        • PROBA-1/SREM radiation rates
                           SREM
                        • Integral/SREM radiation rates
                           SREM
                        • GOES/SEM-EPS datasets on SEDAT
                           SEDAT
                        • PROBA-1/SREM dataset on SEDAT
                           SEDAT
                        • Integral/SREM dataset on SEDAT
                           SEDAT
                        High Energy >10 MeV/nuc Ions
                        • PROBA-V/EPT Helium flux spectra time series
                           EPT
                        • GOES/SEM-EPS datasets on SEDAT
                           SEDAT
                        • POES/SEM-2 dataset on SEDAT
                           SEDAT
                        1-10 MeV Protons
                        • GOES/SEM-EPS datasets on SEDAT
                           SEDAT
                        1-10 MeV/nuc Ions
                        • GOES/SEM-EPS datasets on SEDAT
                           SEDAT
                        0.03-1 MeV/nuc Ions
                        • POES/SEM-2 dataset on SEDAT
                           SEDAT
                        30 keV-8 MeV Electrons
                        • PROBA-V/EPT Electron flux spectra time series
                           EPT
                        • PROBA-1/SREM radiation rates
                           SREM
                        • Integral/SREM radiation rates
                           SREM
                        • GOES/SEM-EPS datasets on SEDAT
                           SEDAT
                        • PROBA-1/SREM dataset on SEDAT
                           SEDAT
                        • Integral/SREM dataset on SEDAT
                           SEDAT
                        • POES/SEM-2 dataset on SEDAT
                           SEDAT
                        Thermal and Supra-thermal Electron and Ion Energy Spectra
                          Thermal Ions Density and Temperature
                            Plasma Drift Velocity

                              Magnetospheric Environment: Models and Reconstruction

                              Geomagnetic Storm Condition
                                Geomagnetic Indices Kp and K
                                • Most recent definitive Kp index
                                   GFZ
                                • Provisional AA indices
                                • Provisional AA indices
                                • Automated Multi Dataset Analysis (AMDA)
                                   AMDA
                                High Energy >10 MeV Protons
                                • PROBA-V/EPT Proton flux geographical maps
                                   EPT
                                • PROBA-V/EPT SAA proton energy spectrum characterisation
                                   EPT
                                • Very high-energy solar energetic proton fluence
                                • Very high-energy solar energetic proton peak flux
                                High Energy >10 MeV/nuc Ions
                                • PROBA-V/EPT Helium flux geographical maps
                                   EPT
                                • PROBA-V/EPT SAA helium energy spectrum characterisation
                                   EPT
                                • SPENVIS Short-term solar particle models
                                • SPENVIS Long-term solar particle models
                                • SPENVIS Galactic cosmic ray models
                                • Static radiation model of energetic helium ions at LEO
                                • High-energy solar heavy ion fluence model
                                1-10 MeV Protons
                                • SPENVIS Standard radiation belt models
                                • SPENVIS IRENE Radiation belt models
                                • SPENVIS Short-term solar particle models
                                • Automated Multi Dataset Analysis (AMDA)
                                   AMDA
                                • SEPEM Reference event list
                                1-10 MeV/nuc Ions
                                • SPENVIS Short-term solar particle models
                                0.03-1 MeV/nuc Ions
                                • Automated Multi Dataset Analysis (AMDA)
                                   AMDA
                                30 keV-8 MeV Electrons
                                • PROBA-V/EPT Electron flux geographical maps
                                   EPT
                                • PROBA-V/EPT Auroral electron energy spectrum characterisation
                                   EPT
                                • SPENVIS Standard radiation belt models
                                • SPENVIS IRENE Radiation belt models
                                • SPENVIS Internal deep dielectric charging
                                • Automated Multi Dataset Analysis (AMDA)
                                   AMDA
                                • Static radiation model of energetic electrons at LEO
                                Thermal and Supra-thermal Electron and Ion Energy Spectra
                                • SWIFF Plasmasphere Model (SPM)
                                   SPM
                                • SPENVIS Surface charging environment characteristics
                                • Electron population model at GEO
                                   MSSL
                                • Electron population model at MEO
                                   MSSL
                                • Electron population model at LEO
                                • Automated Multi Dataset Analysis (AMDA)
                                   AMDA
                                Thermal Ions Density and Temperature
                                • SPENVIS Surface charging environment characteristics
                                • Automated Multi Dataset Analysis (AMDA)
                                   AMDA

                                Magnetospheric Environment: Nowcasts

                                Geomagnetic Storm Condition
                                • Swarm Polar Electrojet (PEJ)
                                   SUA

                                Thermospheric and Atmospheric Conditions: Data Archives

                                Atomic Oxygen Density
                                  Neutral Density and Wind

                                    Thermospheric and Atmospheric Conditions: (Near-) Real-time Measurements

                                    Atomic Oxygen Density
                                      Neutral Density and Wind

                                        Thermospheric and Atmospheric Conditions: Models and Reconstruction

                                        Atomic Oxygen Density
                                        • SPENVIS Atmospheric and ionospheric models
                                        Neutral Density and Wind
                                        • SPENVIS Atmospheric and ionospheric models
                                        • Atmospheric Density Estimates for Atmospheric Drag Calculation
                                           ATMDEN

                                        Microparticle Environment: Data Archives

                                        Micro Particle Flux
                                        • PROBA/DEBIE-1 impact dataset on EDID
                                           EDID
                                        • ISS/DEBIE-2 impact dataset on EDID
                                           EDID
                                        • Express-2/GORID impact dataset on EDID
                                           EDID
                                        Known Periods/events of Increased Microparticle Flux

                                          Microparticle Environment: (Near-) Real-time Measurements

                                          Micro Particle Flux

                                            Microparticle Environment: Models and Reconstruction

                                            Micro Particle Flux
                                            • SPENVIS Meteoroid flux models
                                            • SPENVIS Meteoroids and debris models
                                            Known Periods/events of Increased Microparticle Flux
                                            • SPENVIS Meteoroids and debris models

                                            SPENVIS (Space Environment Information System) is a web-based interface for assessing the space environment and its effects on spacecraft systems and crews. The system is used for mission analysis and planning. SPENVIS includes several empirical models of the space environment covering mainly cosmic rays, solar energetic particles, the natural radiation belts, magnetic fields, space plasmas and the upper atmosphere. A range of engineering models are also available to help assess the effects of the space environment on spacecraft such as surface and internal charging, energy deposition, solar cell damage and SEU rates. Usually these later models take their inputs from the empirical models present in SPENVIS. The system also includes extensive background information on the space environment, the environment models and the related standards.

                                            SEDAT (Space Environment Data System) is a tool for the engineering analysis of spacecraft charged particle environments. The facility provides access to the ODI database containing a large and comprehensive set of data about that environment as measured in-situ by a number of space missions. The user can select a set of space environment data appropriate to the engineering problem under study. SEDAT also offers a set of software tools, which can operate on the data retrieved from the database. These tools allow the user to carry out a wide range of engineering analyses. SEDAT is using a GUI written in Java.

                                            SEPEM (Solar Energetic Particle Environment Modelling) is a WWW interface to solar energetic particle data and a range of modelling tools and functionalities intended to support space mission design. The system provides an implementation of several well known modelling methodologies, built on cleaned datasets. It also gives the user increased flexibility in his/her analysis and allows generation of mission integrated fluence statistics, peak flux statistics and other functionalities. It also integrates effects tools that calculate single event upset rates and radiation doses for a variety of scenarios.

                                            EDID (European Debris Impact Database) provides automated data processing and dissemination functions for measurements retrieved from European debris and meteoroids impact detectors.  It covers impacts from the DEBIE-1, DEBIE-2 and GORID detectors.  Users can access more than 3,000,000 debris and micro-meteoroid event records plus sensor and spacecraft housekeeping data via a user-friendly web interface.  Filters can be defined for each available parameter and be used for regular data retrieval.

                                            The AMDA system provides an archive of planetary, solar wind, Earth magnetosphere and ionosphere mission and ground based products. In addition it supports a range of standard models such as magnetic footprints, magnetic fields, solar wind propagation to planets and probes as well as access to external databases of observations and simulations. A key functionality of the system is its embedded plotting, data mining and cataloguing functionalities which are extremely useful in relation to posteriori analysis.

                                            SWE Data is a web application that provides access to a wide range of Space Weather related data sources covering the areas of the spacecraft, ionospheric, and ground effects. SWE Data allows the user to access all data contained in the repository providing analysis and visualisation tools from these disparate sources.

                                            No alerts are associated with this service.

                                            This section provides links to web pages or resources that are not part of the SSA Space Weather Network or esa.int domain.  These sites are not under ESA control, and therefore ESA is not responsible for any of the information or links that you may find there. 

                                            Reference documents

                                            • ECSS-E-ST-10-04C Space environment (15 November 2008)
                                            • ECSS-E-ST-20-06C Spacecraft charging (31 July 2008)
                                            • ECSS-E-ST-10-12C Method for the calculation of radiation received and its effects, and a policy for design margins (issued on 15 November 2008)
                                            • ECSS-E-HB-10-12A Calculation of radiation and its effects and margin policy handbook (issued on 17 December 2010)