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Spacecraft Design - Space Weather in the Solar System



Determination of duration of high speed solar wind from last two solar rotations

The service "Spacecraft Design - Space Weather in the Solar System" aims to provide information supporting the specification and design of spacecraft that will operate within the heliospheric domain. These missions are primarily solar system science exploration missions but in future could include other missions such as space weather assets located away from the Earth (such as L4 and L5). The service area is also relevant to the heliocentric orbits close to the earth (such as L1 and L2). Many of the products relevant to the in-orbit spacecraft design service are also relevant here although in some cases will need to be scaled according to the specifics of the interplanetary trajectory and heliospheric target. This information includes statistics on the space environment (background solar wind and transient features including coronal mass ejections, stream interaction regions and solar energetic particles as well as solar UV).

This service is implemented through a combination of products, tools and alerts which can be found through the following tabs along with expert support provided by the teams constituting the SWE Network. Should you require further guidance in the use of this service, or have specific questions about any aspects of the service presented here, don't hesitate to contact the Helpdesk.

A set of models and in-orbit sensor datasets are provided with the help of tools and products such as

  • SPENVIS (Space Environment Information System) is a web-based interface for assessing the space environment and its effects on spacecraft systems and crews. SPENVIS currently includes models related to the space environment of Mars and Jupiter. The system is used for mission analysis and planning.
  • SEDAT (Space Environment Data System) is a tool for the engineering analysis of spacecraft charged particle environments. The facility provides access to the ODI database containing a large and comprehensive set of data about that environment as measured in-situ by a number of space missions.
  • SEPEM (Solar Energetic Particle Environment Modelling) is a WWW interface to solar energetic particle data and a range of modelling tools and functionalities intended to support space mission design. The system provides an implementation of several well known modelling methodologies, built on cleaned datasets.
  • HPARC (H-ESC Product Archive) provides an archive of H-ESC products that can be used to review the heliospheric weather conditions that were being reported at a given time.
  • The AMDA system provides a science archive of planetary, solar wind, Earth magnetosphere and ionosphere mission and ground based products. In addition it supports a range of standard models such as magnetic footprints, magnetic fields, solar wind propagation to planets and probes as well as access to external databases of observations and simulations.

This service page is curated by the Heliospheric Weather ESC. For further information, please contact SSCC Help-desk.

The particular space environment considerations for solar system missions depends on the heliospheric trajectory and solar system target(s) relevant to the mission. These include solar energetic particle radiation, plasmas and micro-particles and additionally trapped radiation and atmospheric effects where relevant to planetary bodies with magnetospheres and/or atmospheres. 

The usual starting point will be the Space Environment Standard ECSS-E-ST-10-04 (see Auxiliary Info) which provides the minimum environmental standards that should be designed for. These standards are implemented in the Space Environment Information System (SPENVIS). In addition SPENVIS provides access to other relevant models and statistical tools for assessing mission level plasma and radiation environments. Support for a number of planetary bodies including Mars and Jupiter is also provided within SPENVIS.

The H-ESC archive product (HPARC) provides access to previous met Office HELSWE Enlil model runs, CME characterisations and human forecaster commentary. The timeline of events that is also provided as part of the HPARC products can be a useful starting point. The archived H-ESC products can therefore be used to provide the context for post event analysis and for assessing potential conditions that must be considered during design activities.

Additional contextual information can be obtained from the historical solar system mission archives (see the AMDA product) which provide access to calibrated science quality measurements obtained from a range of solar system locations and undertaken during different solar cycle conditions. The AMDA product also provides data mining tools to help drill down into the data based on users individual needs.

For further information, please contact SSCC Help-desk

The products provided for this service consist of access to archives and reconstructed information on 1) Solar Activity; 2) Interplanetary Medium at L1; 3) Interplanetary Medium Outside L1 and 4) Alerts related to these domains. The Solar activity provides the driver for space weather effects within the solar system and on planetary environments. The L1 and Outside L1 products provide historical data on the enviroment at those locations.

Solar Activity: Data Archive

Solar Flares
  • UGraz/KSO Solar flare detection archive
  • SIDC Solar flare forecast archive
  • SIDC Daily space weather bulletin archive
CMEs
  • SIDC Daily space weather bulletin archive
  • SIDC/CACTus Automated near real time CME detection
CME propagation forecast
  • CME near-Earth arrival time predictions (DBM)
     DBM
  • Heliospheric propagation tool
  • H-ESC case study event request interface
  • H-ESC product assessment report
     HPARC
  • Archive - Solar wind model for Earth [WSA-Enlil]
     HPARC
  • Archive - Solar wind model for Mars [WSA-Enlil]
     HPARC
  • Archive - Solar wind model for Mercury [WSA-Enlil]
     HPARC
  • Archive - Solar wind model for Venus [WSA-Enlil]
     HPARC
Coronal Holes
  • SIDC Daily space weather bulletin archive
Solar Disc Magnetic Fields
    International Sunspot number
    • Automated Multi Dataset Analysis (AMDA)
       AMDA
    • R - sunspot number, archive
       SGIArv
    • SIDC/SILSO International sunspot number
    • SIDC/SILSO International sunspot number
    Smoothed Sunspot Number (SSN, R12)
    • SSN archive on SEDAT
       SEDAT
    • SIDC/SILSO International sunspot number
    • SIDC/SILSO International sunspot number
    10.7cm Solar Radio Flux (F10.7)
    • Automated Multi Dataset Analysis (AMDA)
       AMDA
    • F10.7 -10.7 -cm radio flux proxy, archive
       SGIArv
    • SIDC 10.7cm Solar radio flux (F10.7) forecast archive
    Solar EUV Index (S10.7)
    • S10.7 -10.7 -cm radio flux proxy for solar EUV in solar flux units, archive
       SGIArv
    Solar EUV Index (E10.7)
      Solar FUV Index (M10.7)
      Solar X-ray & UV Index (Y10.7)
      Ionospheric Index (IG12)
      • IG12 - 12-month-running mean of the ionospheric IG index, archive
         SGIArv
      EUV Images of Sun
      • Proba2/SWAP Level 0 quicklook image archive
      • Proba2/SWAP Media level image archive
      • Proba2/SWAP Active region annotated image archive
      • SDO/AIA Solar EUV image archive
      White Light Solar Imaging
      • SIDC/USET White light Solar images archive
      • UGraz/KSO White light Solar images archive
      • INAF/OACT White light Solar images archive
      H-alpha Images of Sun
      • SIDC/USET Halpha Solar images archive
      • UGraz/KSO Halpha Solar images archive
      • INAF/OACT Halpha Solar images archive
      Soft X-ray Images of the Sun
        Solar EUV Images Outside of Sun-Earth Line
          Solar Coronagraphic Images Outside of Sun-Earth Line
            Solar Far-side Maps (using helioseismology technique)
              Ly-alpha Images
                White-light wide-angle Coronagraph Images
                  Solar Radiospectrographic Observations
                  • SIDC Humain Callisto Solar radio spectrogram archive
                  • eCallisto Solar radio spectrograms archive
                  Solar X-ray Flux
                  • GOES/SEM X-Ray Sensor datasets on SEDAT
                     SEDAT
                  • Proba2/LYRA Rescaled data archive
                  • Proba2/LYRA Rescaled latest data
                  Solar EUV Integrated Flux
                  • Proba2/LYRA Data archive
                  • Proba2/LYRA Rescaled data archive
                  • Proba2/LYRA Rescaled latest data
                  Solar UV Flux
                  Long-term Solar Activity
                    Heliospheric Imaging of Sun-Earth Line

                      Interplanetary Medium at L1: Data Archive

                      High Energy >10 MeV Protons
                      • Automated Multi Dataset Analysis (AMDA)
                         AMDA
                      • SPENVIS Short-term solar particle models
                      • SPENVIS Long-term solar particle models
                      • SPENVIS Galactic cosmic ray models
                      • Very high-energy solar energetic proton fluence
                      • Very high-energy solar energetic proton peak flux
                      • Solar very high-energy particle event catalogue
                      High Energy >10 MeV/nuc Ions
                      • Automated Multi Dataset Analysis (AMDA)
                         AMDA
                      • SPENVIS Short-term solar particle models
                      • SPENVIS Long-term solar particle models
                      • SPENVIS Galactic cosmic ray models
                      • ACE/SIS dataset on SEDAT
                         SEDAT
                      • Raw ACE/EPAM ions, e, He, O, Fe channels in SEPEM
                      • Raw ACE/SEPICA data in SEPEM
                      1-10 MeV Protons
                      • Automated Multi Dataset Analysis (AMDA)
                         AMDA
                      • SPENVIS Galactic cosmic ray models
                      • Raw ACE/SEPICA data in SEPEM
                      1-10 MeV/nuc Ions
                      • Automated Multi Dataset Analysis (AMDA)
                         AMDA
                      • SPENVIS Galactic cosmic ray models
                      • Raw ACE/EPAM ions, e, He, O, Fe channels in SEPEM
                      • Raw ACE/SEPICA data in SEPEM
                      0.03-1 MeV/nuc Ions
                      • Automated Multi Dataset Analysis (AMDA)
                         AMDA
                      • Raw ACE/EPAM ions, e, He, O, Fe channels in SEPEM
                      • Raw ACE/SEPICA data in SEPEM
                      2-50 MeV Solar Electrons
                      • Automated Multi Dataset Analysis (AMDA)
                         AMDA
                      30 keV-8 MeV Electrons
                      • Automated Multi Dataset Analysis (AMDA)
                         AMDA
                      • Raw ACE/EPAM ions, e, He, O, Fe channels in SEPEM
                      Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF)
                      • Automated Multi Dataset Analysis (AMDA)
                         AMDA
                      • IMF - Interplanetary magnetic field, archive
                         SGIArv
                      Solar Wind Bulk Velocity
                      • Archive - Solar wind model for Earth [WSA-Enlil]
                         HPARC
                      • Archive - Solar wind model for Earth [ESWF]
                         HPARC
                      • Automated Multi Dataset Analysis (AMDA)
                         AMDA
                      • SIDC Daily space weather bulletin archive
                      Solar Wind Bulk Density
                      • Archive - Solar wind model for Earth [WSA-Enlil]
                         HPARC
                      • Automated Multi Dataset Analysis (AMDA)
                         AMDA
                      Solar Wind Temperature
                      • Automated Multi Dataset Analysis (AMDA)
                         AMDA
                      Activity at L1

                        Interplanetary Medium Outside L1: Data Archive

                        CME propagation forecast
                        • CME near-Earth arrival time predictions (DBM)
                           DBM
                        • Heliospheric propagation tool
                        • H-ESC case study event request interface
                        • H-ESC product assessment report
                           HPARC
                        • Archive - Solar wind model for Earth [WSA-Enlil]
                           HPARC
                        • Archive - Solar wind model for Mars [WSA-Enlil]
                           HPARC
                        • Archive - Solar wind model for Mercury [WSA-Enlil]
                           HPARC
                        • Archive - Solar wind model for Venus [WSA-Enlil]
                           HPARC
                        Solar Energetic Particle Events
                        • Automated Multi Dataset Analysis (AMDA)
                           AMDA
                        • HELIOS-A and HELIOS-B E6 and E7 datasets on SEDAT
                           SEDAT
                        • Rosetta/SREM dataset on SEDAT
                           SEDAT
                        • Herschel/SREM dataset on SEDAT
                           SEDAT
                        • Planck/SREM dataset on SEDAT
                           SEDAT
                        • Time series of Rosetta/SREM radiation rates
                        • Time series of Herschel/SREM radiation rates
                        • Time series of Planck/SREM radiation rates
                        • Raw ACE/SEPICA data in SEPEM
                        • SIDC Daily space weather bulletin archive
                        Interplanetary Medium Data
                        • Archive - Solar wind model for Mars [WSA-Enlil]
                           HPARC
                        • Archive - Solar wind model for Mercury [WSA-Enlil]
                           HPARC
                        • Archive - Solar wind model for Venus [WSA-Enlil]
                           HPARC
                        • Automated Multi Dataset Analysis (AMDA)
                           AMDA
                        • Statistical heliospheric long-term plasma products
                        • AMPTE-UKS dataset on SEDAT
                           SEDAT
                        • HELIOS-A and HELIOS-B E6 and E7 datasets on SEDAT
                           SEDAT

                        Alerts: Data Archive

                        Solar Flare Detection
                        • UGraz/KSO Solar flare alert archive
                        • SIDC Solar GOES-flare alert
                        Solar Flare Detection and Location
                        • UGraz/KSO Solar flare alert archive
                        CME Onset
                        • SIDC/CACTus Automated halo CME alert
                        CIR Alert
                        • Archive - Automated NRT Near Earth Alerts [AWARE]
                           HPARC
                        Geomagnetic Storm Warning / Solar Wind Shock Arrival
                        • Archive - Automated NRT Near Earth Alerts [AWARE]
                           HPARC

                        The tools that are currently provided support 1) Access to space environment tools that can help to predict the likely environment to be encounted; 2) Archive data mining;

                        SEDAT (Space Environment Data System) is a tool for the engineering analysis of spacecraft charged particle environments. The facility provides access to the ODI database containing a large and comprehensive set of data about that environment as measured in-situ by a number of space missions. The user can select a set of space environment data appropriate to the engineering problem under study. SEDAT also offers a set of software tools, which can operate on the data retrieved from the database. These tools allow the user to carry out a wide range of engineering analyses. SEDAT is using a GUI written in Java.

                        SPENVIS (Space Environment Information System) is a web-based interface for assessing the space environment and its effects on spacecraft systems and crews. The system is used for mission analysis and planning. SPENVIS includes several empirical models of the space environment covering mainly cosmic rays, solar energetic particles, the natural radiation belts, magnetic fields, space plasmas and the upper atmosphere. A range of engineering models are also available to help assess the effects of the space environment on spacecraft such as surface and internal charging, energy deposition, solar cell damage and SEU rates. Usually these later models take their inputs from the empirical models present in SPENVIS. The system also includes extensive background information on the space environment, the environment models and the related standards.

                        SEPEM (Solar Energetic Particle Environment Modelling) is a WWW interface to solar energetic particle data and a range of modelling tools and functionalities intended to support space mission design. The system provides an implementation of several well known modelling methodologies, built on cleaned datasets. It also gives the user increased flexibility in his/her analysis and allows generation of mission integrated fluence statistics, peak flux statistics and other functionalities. It also integrates effects tools that calculate single event upset rates and radiation doses for a variety of scenarios.

                        The AMDA system provides an archive of planetary, solar wind, Earth magnetosphere and ionosphere mission and ground based products. In addition it supports a range of standard models such as magnetic footprints, magnetic fields, solar wind propagation to planets and probes as well as access to external databases of observations and simulations. A key functionality of the system is its embedded plotting, data mining and cataloguing functionalities which are extremely useful in relation to posteriori analysis.

                        The H-ESC product assessment report provides a monthly overview of the events identified during the interval and the accuracy with which they could be determined. Initially this activity is focused on CME arrival and solar wind speed forecasts.

                        The H-ESC product browser provides a quick way to review the H-ESC products as they were available at a specific time.

                        The H-ESC case study page provides support for undertaking case studies or reviews of historical events within the solar system weather domain. In addition to providing links to the relevant historical plot and science data archives it supplies information on requesting items from the H-ESC near-line archive (such as the full 3D WSA-Enlil output), or requesting dedicated WSA-Enlil case study runs.

                        SWE Data is a web application that provides access to a wide range of Space Weather related data sources covering the areas of the spacecraft, ionospheric, and ground effects. SWE Data allows the user to access all data contained in the repository providing analysis and visualisation tools from these disparate sources.

                        No realtime alerts are associated with this service since it is targeted at design activities. Archived alerts can be found under the appropriately named section within the products tab.

                        This section provides links to web pages or resources that are not part of the SSA Space Weather Network or esa.int domain.  These sites are not under ESA control and therefore ESA is not responsible for any of the information or links that you may find there. 

                        Reference documents