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Spacecraft Design - Environment specification: data archive


Medium-term predictions of the smoothed monthly sunspot number obtained by applying an adaptative
Kalman filter to the primary methods.

The service "Spacecraft Design - Environment specification: data archive" aims to provide, for past or future spacecraft, statistical information on the space environment (i.e. ionising radiation, plasma, microparticles, atmosphere, and UV) and its effects (e.g. dose, single event upset, sensor background, cumulated charge, spacecraft anomalies, microparticle impacts), as well as long-term solar cycle prediction since several spacecraft effects exhibit solar cycle variation. Such information is needed for tailored design of space systems especially in relation to radiation protection, electromagnetic compatibility and microparticle impacts. The service is intended for personnel involved in generating space environment specifications for the design of spacecraft.

This service is implemented through a combination of products, tools and alerts which can be found through the following tabs along with expert support provided by the teams constituting the SWE Network. Should you require further guidance in the use of this service, or have specific questions about any aspects of the service presented here, don't hesitate to contact the Helpdesk.

A number of models and in-orbit sensor datasets are made available with the help of tools and products such as:

  • the Space Environment Information System (SPENVIS) coupling several empirical and engineering models of the space environment and its effects on spacecraft or components based on a mission plan;
  • the Space Environment Data System (SEDAT) allows engineering analyses to be carried out on datasets related to the spacecraft charged particle environments;
  • the Solar Energetic Particle Environment Modelling application (SEPEM) allowing solar energetic particle statistical analyses on an extended set of cross-calibrated data;
  • the European Debris Impact Database (EDID) provides data processing and dissemination functions for measurements from European debris and meteoroid impact detectors;
  • the Space Research Laboratory Solar Energetic Particles (UTU-SEP) products provide access to a high energy SEP event list as well as the calculation of the expected high energy proton fluence and worst-case proton flux for a specific mission length due to SEPs;
  • measurements and derived data products from the Energetic Particle Telescope (EPT) on PROBA-V;
  • measurements and derived data products from the Standard Radiation Environment Monitors (SREM) on Proba-1, Integral, Rosetta, Herschel and Planck;
  • the electron population model from Mullard Space Science Laboratory (MSSL) for LEO, MEO and GEO as function of solar wind speed and Kp index;
  • the SWIFF Plasmasphere Model (SPM) dynamical simulation provides the number density and temperatures of the electrons as a function of time;
  • the Space Weather Data Browsing and Analysis (SWE Data) provides access to space weather environment data.

This service page is curated by the ESC Space Radiation. For further information, please contact SSCC Help-desk.


SOHO/LASCO coronagraph image showing
contamination by energetic particles
associated with solar activity (© ESA)
 

Impact crater (size 4 mm) on solar cell
retrieved from space (© ESA)

The space environments considered include energetic particle radiation, plasmas, atmospheres, micro-particles, and contamination. They can all cause serious problems for space systems that need to be carefully taken into account during the development of spacecraft. The radiation environment, consisting of radiation belts, cosmic rays, and solar energetic particles causes effects such as radiation damage, single-event upsets in electronics, background in detectors, and health hazards to astronauts. The plasma environment increases electrostatic charging of spacecraft parts or affects scientific instruments. The residual upper atmosphere causes surface erosion by atomic oxygen. Finally the micro-meteoroids and space debris environments introduce significant risks for manned and unmanned spacecraft.

A possible starting point when preparing space environment specifications for a spacecraft design is the Space Environment Information System (SPENVIS). This tool allows the execution of a set of space environment models based on a mission scenario (mission duration, typical spacecraft trajectories and spacecraft attitude) and to evaluate impacts and risks by propagating the results into engineering models. The tool includes graphical visualisation and an extended help with background information and references to the European standards. For a more comprehensive analysis of the space environment effects, the SPENVIS output could be exported to more specific applications, such as GRAS (Geant4 Radiation Analysis for Space) or SPIS (Spacecraft Plasma Interaction Software), that are taking into account the detailed geometry of the spacecraft.

When the available models don't include the appropriate statistical information, a tool such as SEDAT (Space Environment DATa system) could be considered. SEDAT allows a wide range of engineering analyses to be carried out using a comprehensive set of in-situ space environment datasets. The flexibility of the tool authorises the tailoring of the data processing to the problem under study and the incorporation of new datasets.

The Space Environment Standard ECSS-E-ST-10-04 (see Auxiliary Info) provides principles for determining the local induced environment and guidelines for the model and parameter selection process. The table below summarises typical programmatic concerns related to the space environment.

  Thermosphere Solar radiance Plasma Microparticles Ionizing radiation Magnetic field
Avionics Thermal design Upsets due to electromagnetic interference from arcing, spacecraft charging Electromagnetic interference due to impacts Single event upsets, bit errors, bit switching Induced potential effects
Electrical Power Degradation of solar array performance Solar array designs, power allocations, power system performance Shift in floating potential, current losses, contaminant reattraction Damage to solar cells Decrease in solar cell output Induced potential effects
Guidance, navigation & control, and pointing Overall design of GN&C and pointing system Density and drag variation, induced gravity gradient torques Torques due to induced potential Collision avoidance Sizing of magnetic torquers
Materials Material selection, material degradation (atomic oxygen erosion) Material selection, solar UV exposure Arcing, sputtering, contamination effects on surface properties Degradation of surface Degradation of materials
Optics Spacecraft glow, interference with sensors Design of optical systems Contaminant reattraction, change in surface optical properties Degradation of surface optical properties Darkening of windows and fibre optics
Propulsion Drag makeup, fuel requirement Density and drag variation Shift in floating potential due to interaction of thruster firing Collision avoidance, fuel requirement increase for shielding, pressurised tank rupture
Structures Placement of thermal sensitive structures, fatigue, thermally induced vibrations Mass loss from arcing & sputtering, spacecraft charging effects Structural damage, design of shielding, spacecraft weight, crew survivability Induced current in large structures
Telemetry, tracking and communication Possible tracking error or loss Tracking accuracy, density and drag variation Electromagnetic interference due to arcing Electromagnetic interference due to impacts South Atlantic Anomaly location
Thermal control Reentry loads & heating, surface degradation (atomic oxygen) Radiator sizing, influence on reentry thermal heating Change in absorptance/emittance properties, reattraction of contaminants Change in thermal properties
Mission operations Reboost timelines, spacecraft lifetime assessment Mission planning and timelines Crew survivability Crew replacement timelines

For further information, please contact SSCC Help-desk.

Solar Activity: Data Archives

Solar Flares
  • UGraz/KSO Solar flare detection archive
  • SIDC Solar flare forecast archive
Smoothed Sunspot Number (SSN, R12)
  • SIDC/SILSO International sunspot number
  • SSN archive on SEDAT
     SEDAT
10.7cm Solar Radio Flux (F10.7)
  • SIDC 10.7cm Solar radio flux (F10.7) forecast archive
  • Automated Multi Dataset Analysis (AMDA)
     AMDA
  • Solar index archive for thermospheric drag calculation
     SGIArv
Solar X-ray Flux
  • Proba2/LYRA Rescaled data archive
  • GOES/SEM X-Ray Sensor datasets on SEDAT
     SEDAT
Solar EUV Integrated Flux
  • Proba2/LYRA Data archive
  • Proba2/LYRA Rescaled data archive
Solar UV Flux

Solar Activity: Model and Medium-term Forecast

Solar Flares
  • SIDC Latest Solar flare forecast
  • SIDC Daily space weather bulletin archive
  • A-EFFort Solar flare forecast
Smoothed Sunspot Number (SSN, R12)
  • SIDC/SILSO International sunspot number
10.7cm Solar Radio Flux (F10.7)
  • SIDC 10.7cm Solar radio flux (F10.7) forecast archive
  • Automated Multi Dataset Analysis (AMDA)
     AMDA
Solar X-ray Flux
    Solar EUV Integrated Flux
      Solar UV Flux

        Interplanetary Medium at L1: Data Archives

        High Energy >10 MeV Protons
        • Automated Multi Dataset Analysis (AMDA)
           AMDA
        High Energy >10 MeV/nuc Ions
        • Automated Multi Dataset Analysis (AMDA)
           AMDA
        • ACE/SIS dataset on SEDAT
           SEDAT
        • Raw ACE/EPAM ions, e, He, O, Fe channels in SEPEM
        • Raw ACE/SEPICA data in SEPEM
        1-10 MeV Protons
        • Automated Multi Dataset Analysis (AMDA)
           AMDA
        • Raw ACE/SEPICA data in SEPEM
        1-10 MeV/nuc Ions
        • Automated Multi Dataset Analysis (AMDA)
           AMDA
        • Raw ACE/EPAM ions, e, He, O, Fe channels in SEPEM
        • Raw ACE/SEPICA data in SEPEM
        0.03-1 MeV/nuc Ions
        • Automated Multi Dataset Analysis (AMDA)
           AMDA
        • Raw ACE/EPAM ions, e, He, O, Fe channels in SEPEM
        • Raw ACE/SEPICA data in SEPEM
        2-50 MeV Solar Electrons
        • Automated Multi Dataset Analysis (AMDA)
           AMDA
        30 keV-8 MeV Electrons
        • Automated Multi Dataset Analysis (AMDA)
           AMDA
        • Raw ACE/EPAM ions, e, He, O, Fe channels in SEPEM
        Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF)
        • Automated Multi Dataset Analysis (AMDA)
           AMDA
        Solar Wind Bulk Velocity
        • Archive - Solar wind model for Earth [WSA-Enlil]
           HPARC
        • Archive - Solar wind model for Earth [ESWF]
           HPARC
        • Automated Multi Dataset Analysis (AMDA)
           AMDA
        Solar Wind Bulk Density
        • Archive - Solar wind model for Earth [WSA-Enlil]
           HPARC
        • Automated Multi Dataset Analysis (AMDA)
           AMDA
        Solar Wind Temperature
        • Automated Multi Dataset Analysis (AMDA)
           AMDA

        Interplanetary Medium at L1: Model and Medium-term Forecast

        High Energy >10 MeV Protons
        • Automated Multi Dataset Analysis (AMDA)
           AMDA
        • SPENVIS Short-term solar particle models
        • SPENVIS Long-term solar particle models
        • SPENVIS Galactic cosmic ray models
        • Very high-energy solar energetic proton fluence
        • Very high-energy solar energetic proton peak flux
        • Solar very high-energy particle event catalogue
        High Energy >10 MeV/nuc Ions
        • Automated Multi Dataset Analysis (AMDA)
           AMDA
        • SPENVIS Short-term solar particle models
        • SPENVIS Long-term solar particle models
        • SPENVIS Galactic cosmic ray models
        1-10 MeV Protons
        • Automated Multi Dataset Analysis (AMDA)
           AMDA
        • SPENVIS Galactic cosmic ray models
        1-10 MeV/nuc Ions
        • Automated Multi Dataset Analysis (AMDA)
           AMDA
        • SPENVIS Galactic cosmic ray models
        0.03-1 MeV/nuc Ions
        • Automated Multi Dataset Analysis (AMDA)
           AMDA
        2-50 MeV Solar Electrons
        • Automated Multi Dataset Analysis (AMDA)
           AMDA
        30 keV-8 MeV Electrons
        • Automated Multi Dataset Analysis (AMDA)
           AMDA
        Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF)
        • Automated Multi Dataset Analysis (AMDA)
           AMDA
        Solar Wind Bulk Velocity
        • Automated Multi Dataset Analysis (AMDA)
           AMDA
        • Near-Earth solar wind forecasts (WSA-Enlil)
           SELSWE
        • Near-Earth CME arrival time predictions (WSA-Enlil)
           SELSWE
        • Empirical solar wind speed forecast
           ESWF
        Solar Wind Bulk Density
        • Automated Multi Dataset Analysis (AMDA)
           AMDA
        • Near-Earth solar wind forecasts (WSA-Enlil)
           SELSWE
        Solar Wind Temperature
        • Automated Multi Dataset Analysis (AMDA)
           AMDA

        Magnetospheric Environment: Data Archives

        High Energy >10 MeV Protons
        • PROBA-V/EPT Proton flux spectra time series
           EPT
        • Radiation environment at ISS orbit
        • Radiation environment inside ISS
        • AZUR/EI-88 dataset on SEDAT
           SEDAT
        • GOES/SEM-EPS datasets on SEDAT
           SEDAT
        • UARS/PEM-HEPS dataset on SEDAT
           SEDAT
        • PROBA-1/SREM dataset on SEDAT
           SEDAT
        • Integral/SREM dataset on SEDAT
           SEDAT
        • IMP-8/CPME and CRNC datasets on SEDAT
           SEDAT
        • MIR/REM dataset on SEDAT
           SEDAT
        • STRV1B/REM dataset on SEDAT
           SEDAT
        • XMM/ERMD dataset on SEDAT
           SEDAT
        • SEPEM Reference proton data set
        • Cleaned GOES/SEM proton channels in SEPEM
        • Time series of PROBA-1/SREM radiation rates
        • Time series of Integral/SREM radiation rates
        High Energy >10 MeV/nuc Ions
        • PROBA-V/EPT Helium flux spectra time series
           EPT
        • Radiation environment at ISS orbit
        • Radiation environment inside ISS
        • AZUR/EI-88 dataset on SEDAT
           SEDAT
        • GOES/SEM-EPS datasets on SEDAT
           SEDAT
        • METOP02/SEM2 dataset on SEDAT
           SEDAT
        • IMP-8/CPME and CRNC datasets on SEDAT
           SEDAT
        • POES/SEM-2 datasets on SEDAT
           SEDAT
        • Raw IMP8/CPME ion channels in SEPEM
        1-10 MeV Protons
        • AZUR/EI-88 dataset on SEDAT
           SEDAT
        • GOES/SEM-EPS datasets on SEDAT
           SEDAT
        • UARS/PEM-HEPS dataset on SEDAT
           SEDAT
        • IMP-8/CPME and CRNC datasets on SEDAT
           SEDAT
        • XMM/ERMD dataset on SEDAT
           SEDAT
        • SEPEM Reference proton data set
        • Cleaned GOES/SEM proton channels in SEPEM
        • Automated Multi Dataset Analysis (AMDA)
           AMDA
        1-10 MeV/nuc Ions
        • AZUR/EI-88 dataset on SEDAT
           SEDAT
        • GOES/SEM-EPS datasets on SEDAT
           SEDAT
        • IMP-8/CPME and CRNC datasets on SEDAT
           SEDAT
        • Raw IMP8/CPME ion channels in SEPEM
        0.03-1 MeV/nuc Ions
        • METOP02/SEM2 dataset on SEDAT
           SEDAT
        • Equator_S/EPI dataset on SEDAT
           SEDAT
        • ISEE1/MEPI dataset on SEDAT
           SEDAT
        • POES/SEM-2 datasets on SEDAT
           SEDAT
        • Automated Multi Dataset Analysis (AMDA)
           AMDA
        30 keV-8 MeV Electrons
        • PROBA-V/EPT Electron flux spectra time series
           EPT
        • GOES/SEM-EPS datasets on SEDAT
           SEDAT
        • Meteosat-3/SEM2 dataset on SEDAT
           SEDAT
        • METOP02/SEM2 dataset on SEDAT
           SEDAT
        • CRRES/MEA dataset on SEDAT
           SEDAT
        • Equator_S/EPI dataset on SEDAT
           SEDAT
        • PROBA-1/SREM dataset on SEDAT
           SEDAT
        • Integral/SREM dataset on SEDAT
           SEDAT
        • IMP-8/CPME and CRNC datasets on SEDAT
           SEDAT
        • ISEE1/MEPI dataset on SEDAT
           SEDAT
        • ISEE1/KED dataset on SEDAT
           SEDAT
        • MIR/REM dataset on SEDAT
           SEDAT
        • STRV1B/REM dataset on SEDAT
           SEDAT
        • POES/SEM-2 datasets on SEDAT
           SEDAT
        • XMM/ERMD dataset on SEDAT
           SEDAT
        • Raw IMP8/CPME electron channels in SEPEM
        • Time series of PROBA-1/SREM radiation rates
        • Time series of Integral/SREM radiation rates
        • Automated Multi Dataset Analysis (AMDA)
           AMDA
        Thermal and Supra-thermal Electron and Ion Energy Spectra
        • GORIZONT/ADIPE Spacecraft charging dataset
        • CRRES/LEPA Spacecraft charging dataset
        • Automated Multi Dataset Analysis (AMDA)
           AMDA
        Thermal Ions Density and Temperature
        • Automated Multi Dataset Analysis (AMDA)
           AMDA

        Magnetospheric Environment: Model and Medium-term Forecast

        High Energy >10 MeV Protons
        • PROBA-V/EPT Proton flux geographical maps
           EPT
        • PROBA-V/EPT SAA proton energy spectrum characterisation
           EPT
        • SEPEM Reference event list
        • SPENVIS Standard radiation belt models
        • SPENVIS IRENE Radiation belt models
        • SPENVIS Short-term solar particle models
        • SPENVIS Long-term solar particle models
        • SPENVIS Galactic cosmic ray models
        • Very high-energy solar energetic proton fluence
        • Very high-energy solar energetic proton peak flux
        High Energy >10 MeV/nuc Ions
        • PROBA-V/EPT Helium flux geographical maps
           EPT
        • PROBA-V/EPT SAA helium energy spectrum characterisation
           EPT
        • SPENVIS Short-term solar particle models
        • SPENVIS Long-term solar particle models
        • SPENVIS Galactic cosmic ray models
        1-10 MeV Protons
        • SEPEM Reference event list
        • SPENVIS Standard radiation belt models
        • SPENVIS IRENE Radiation belt models
        • SPENVIS Short-term solar particle models
        • Automated Multi Dataset Analysis (AMDA)
           AMDA
        1-10 MeV/nuc Ions
        • SPENVIS Short-term solar particle models
        0.03-1 MeV/nuc Ions
        • Automated Multi Dataset Analysis (AMDA)
           AMDA
        30 keV-8 MeV Electrons
        • PROBA-V/EPT Electron flux geographical maps
           EPT
        • PROBA-V/EPT Auroral electron energy spectrum characterisation
           EPT
        • SPENVIS Standard radiation belt models
        • SPENVIS IRENE Radiation belt models
        • SPENVIS Internal deep dielectric charging
        • Automated Multi Dataset Analysis (AMDA)
           AMDA
        Thermal and Supra-thermal Electron and Ion Energy Spectra
        • Plasmasphere electron density distribution model
        • SPENVIS Surface charging environment characteristics
        • Electron population model at GEO
           MSSL
        • Electron population model at MEO
           MSSL
        • Electron population at LEO
        • Automated Multi Dataset Analysis (AMDA)
           AMDA
        Thermal Ions Density and Temperature
        • SPENVIS Surface charging environment characteristics
        • Automated Multi Dataset Analysis (AMDA)
           AMDA

        Thermospheric and Atmospheric Conditions: Data Archives

        Atomic Oxygen Density
          Neutral Density and Wind

            Thermospheric and Atmospheric Conditions: Model and Medium-term Forecast

            Atomic Oxygen Density
            • SPENVIS Atmospheric and ionospheric models
            Neutral Density and Wind
            • SPENVIS Atmospheric and ionospheric models

            Microparticle Environment: Data Archives

            Micro Particle Flux
            • PROBA/DEBIE-1 impact dataset on EDID
               EDID
            • ISS/DEBIE-2 impact dataset on EDID
               EDID
            • Express-2/GORID impact dataset on EDID
               EDID
            Known Periods/events of Increased Microparticle Flux

              Microparticle Environment: Model and Medium-term Forecast

              Micro Particle Flux
              • SPENVIS Meteoroid flux models
              • SPENVIS Meteoroids and debris models
              Known Periods/events of Increased Microparticle Flux
              • SPENVIS Meteoroids and debris models

              Spacecraft Effects and Anomalies: Data Archives

              Anomalies on Spacecraft Equipment
                Spacecraft Radiation Monitors
                • Radiation environment at ISS orbit
                • Radiation environment inside ISS
                • PROBA-1/SREM dataset on SEDAT
                   SEDAT
                • Integral/SREM dataset on SEDAT
                   SEDAT
                • Rosetta/SREM dataset on SEDAT
                   SEDAT
                • Herschel/SREM dataset on SEDAT
                   SEDAT
                • Planck/SREM dataset on SEDAT
                   SEDAT
                • MIR/REM dataset on SEDAT
                   SEDAT
                • STRV1B/REM dataset on SEDAT
                   SEDAT
                • Time series of PROBA-1/SREM radiation rates
                • Time series of Integral/SREM radiation rates
                • Time series of Rosetta/SREM radiation rates
                • Time series of Herschel/SREM radiation rates
                • Time series of Planck/SREM radiation rates
                Orbital Data of Spacecraft Carrying Space Weather Instruments
                  Spacecraft Housekeeping Telemetry
                    Dose
                    • Radiation environment at ISS orbit
                    • Radiation environment inside ISS
                    • Accumulated dose in human phantoms on ISS
                    Deep Dielectric Charging
                      Surface Charging
                      • GORIZONT/ADIPE Spacecraft charging dataset
                      • CRRES/LEPA Spacecraft charging dataset

                      Spacecraft Effects and Anomalies: Model and Medium-term Forecast

                      Anomalies on Spacecraft Equipment
                      • SPENVIS Short-term SEU rates and LET spectra
                      • SPENVIS Long-term SEUs and LET spectra
                      • SPENVIS Particle/wall interaction models
                      Spacecraft Radiation Monitors
                        Orbital Data of Spacecraft Carrying Space Weather Instruments
                          Spacecraft Housekeeping Telemetry
                            Dose
                            • Accumulated dose catalogue during SW events
                            • SPENVIS Solar cell damage equivalent fluences
                            • SPENVIS Solar cell NIEL-based damage equivalent fluences
                            • SPENVIS Ionising dose for simple geometries
                            • SPENVIS Non-ionising energy loss for simple geometries
                            • SPENVIS Effective dose and ambient dose equivalent
                            • Geant4-based effect simulation in SPENVIS
                            Deep Dielectric Charging
                            • SPENVIS Internal deep dielectric charging
                            Surface Charging
                            • SPENVIS Surface charging
                            • SPENVIS Solar array and spacecraft structure potentials

                            Long-term Solar Cycle Prediction

                            Long-term Solar Activity
                              Activity at L1

                                SPENVIS (Space Environment Information System) is a web-based interface for assessing the space environment and its effects on spacecraft systems and crews. The system is used for mission analysis and planning. SPENVIS includes several empirical models of the space environment covering mainly cosmic rays, solar energetic particles, the natural radiation belts, magnetic fields, space plasmas and the upper atmosphere. A range of engineering models are also available to help assess the effects of the space environment on spacecraft such as surface and internal charging, energy deposition, solar cell damage and SEU rates. Usually these later models take their inputs from the empirical models present in SPENVIS. The system also includes extensive background information on the space environment, the environment models and the related standards.

                                SEDAT (Space Environment Data System) is a tool for the engineering analysis of spacecraft charged particle environments. The facility provides access to the ODI database containing a large and comprehensive set of data about that environment as measured in-situ by a number of space missions. The user can select a set of space environment data appropriate to the engineering problem under study. SEDAT also offers a set of software tools, which can operate on the data retrieved from the database. These tools allow the user to carry out a wide range of engineering analyses. SEDAT is using a GUI written in Java.

                                SEPEM (Solar Energetic Particle Environment Modelling) is a WWW interface to solar energetic particle data and a range of modelling tools and functionalities intended to support space mission design. The system provides an implementation of several well known modelling methodologies, built on cleaned datasets. It also gives the user increased flexibility in his/her analysis and allows generation of mission integrated fluence statistics, peak flux statistics and other functionalities. It also integrates effects tools that calculate single event upset rates and radiation doses for a variety of scenarios.

                                EDID (European Debris Impact Database) provides automated data processing and dissemination functions for measurements retrieved from European debris and meteoroids impact detectors.  It covers impacts from the DEBIE-1, DEBIE-2 and GORID detectors.  Users can access more than 3,000,000 debris and micro-meteoroid event records plus sensor and spacecraft housekeeping data via a user-friendly web interface.  Filters can be defined for each available parameter and be used for regular data retrieval.

                                SWE Data is a web application that provides access to a wide range of Space Weather related data sources covering the areas of the spacecraft, ionospheric, and ground effects. SWE Data allows the user to access all data contained in the repository providing analysis and visualisation tools from these disparate sources.

                                The AMDA system provides an archive of planetary, solar wind, Earth magnetosphere and ionosphere mission and ground based products. In addition it supports a range of standard models such as magnetic footprints, magnetic fields, solar wind propagation to planets and probes as well as access to external databases of observations and simulations. A key functionality of the system is its embedded plotting, data mining and cataloguing functionalities which are extremely useful in relation to posteriori analysis.

                                No alerts are associated with this service.

                                This section provides links to web pages or resources that are not part of the SSA Space Weather Network or esa.int domain.  These sites are not under ESA control, and therefore ESA is not responsible for any of the information or links that you may find there. 

                                Reference documents

                                • ECSS-E-ST-10-04C Space environment (15 November 2008)
                                • ECSS-E-ST-20-06C Spacecraft charging (31 July 2008)
                                • ECSS-E-ST-10-12C Method for the calculation of radiation received and its effects, and a policy for design margins (issued on 15 November 2008)
                                • ECSS-E-HB-10-12A Calculation of radiation and its effects and margin policy handbook (issued on 17 December 2010)